How we lived together in the 20th century in Georgia

How to teach history in a multicultural and multireligious environment?

This complementary resource, available in Georgian and Russian languages, is targeted at students from 9th to 12th grade and gives evidence of the capacity of the authors and editors in the EuroClio/GAHE Project “Tolerance Building through History Education in Georgia” to develop practical classroom material. It aims to make history an engaging subject for students by presenting them in a lively way “why”, like the introduction to the book says, “people with different ethnic and religious identities considered themselves part of (the Georgian) society, and what have made them feel marginalized”.

As the Editorial Team introduces the materials:

This book seeks to tell you how we, with differing ethnic and religious backgrounds have lived together in the 20th century in our home country Georgia. This book will encourage you to think how important historical events from the previous century reflected in our shared lives. You may also probably ponder why people with different ethnic and religious identities considered themselves part of our society and what have made them feel marginalized? How did the ethnic and religious minorities manage to preserve their identities? What has encouraged or hindered this process? What was the input of the minorities in the Georgian history of the 20th century?

To comprehend these questions the book offers a variety of sources which are grouped around the four groups – Multiethnic Georgia, Family and Everyday Life, Migration, and Religion. Peaceful coexistence, understanding, mutual respect and insights into other cultures, traditions, and values are starting point of a country’s successful development. Every worksheet has a key and an overall question, as well as the wide range of sources and tasks. The key question helps to identify the main idea of the worksheet and the overall question initiates discussion and conclusions. The various sources often suggest multiple perspectives. The tasks will encourage you to take your own approach to the issues. Many people were involved in creating this book. The authors with different ethnic and religious backgrounds shared the same intention.

The English abstracts of all 29 modules show the variety and originality of the topics addressed, as acknowledged by Dr. Robert Maier, external expert from the Georg Eckert Institute invited by EuroClio to review the publication: “The authors work sensibly and to great effect with the principle of examples. They take a specific street, a certain village, a particular family, and use these examples to illustrate complex structures and contexts.”

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How to teach history in a multicultural and multireligious environment?


 Introduction KA | RU

Section 1. Multi-ethnic Georgia

 0. How to work on group worksheets of Section 1  KA | RU
 1. The Tbilisi Courtyard  KA | RU
 2. Did we pass the tolerance exam?  KA | RU
 3. The Doukhobors  KA | RU
4. The Caucasian Yard  KA | RU
5. Tskhinvali 1990  KA | RU
6. The events of 9 March 1956  KA | RU
7. April 9, 1989  KA | RU
8. Tbilisi Melpomene  KA | RU
9. The Garden of Eden in "Southern Siberia"  KA | RU

Section 2. Family and everyday life

0. How to work on group worksheets of Section 2 KA | RU
10. Mixed marriages in Georgia KA | RU
11. One street in Marneuli KA | RU
12. The human anthill in Chakvi KA | RU
13. Udiytsy in the Georgian environment of the 20th century KA | RU
14. The Kists in Georgia in the 20th century KA | RU
15. History of the Spanish grandmother. KA | RU
16. Ethnic Conflicts and Children KA | RU

Section 3. Migration

0. How to work on group worksheets of Section 3 KA | RU
17. Share a piece of bread KA | RU
18. In the eternal search for the homeland KA | RU
19. Rustavi KA | RU
20. Rolling stone KA | RU
21. Two sides of the medal KA | RU
22. Diaries of three women KA | RU
23. Will we find another Georgia? KA | RU

Section 4. Religion

0. How to work on group worksheets of Section 4 KA | RU
24. Law and Reality KA | RU
25. "Godless state" KA | RU
26. The Secret Prayer KA | RU
27. Cooperation or intolerance?! KA | RU
28. Georgia for the Orthodox KA | RU
29. Catholics in Kutaisi KA | RU

Part of the Project

Tolerance Building through History Education in Georgia

Funded by

MATRA Programme

Members involved

Georgian Association of History Educators

External Review by

Download the External Review



Rumyana Kusheva


Elisabed Chubinishvili, Nina Zulumiani, Manana Shekiladze, Evelina Mamedova.


Nino Chikovani Marlen Shengelia, Zurab Laoshvili, Seda Melkumiani, Nona Chigladze, Elene Bodaveli, Nana Sologashvili, Ketevan Kvlividze, Shorena Khetsurian, Naira Mamukelashvili, Nugzar Molashvili, Nargiz Nabieva, Elura Alieva, Madona Mikeladze, Nana Agasashvili, Lamara Margoshvili, Maka Kirvalidze, Tsira Chikvaidze, Ia Khubashvili, Lela Kakashvili, Otar Janelidze, Amiran Jamagidze, Beso Lortkipanidze, Natia Pirtskhalava, Ketevan Sturua, Natia Namicheishvili, Nugzar Bardavelidze.

Tolerance Building Through History Education in Georgia

How to teach history in a multicultural and multireligious environment?

The project - which started in a difficult period of tension and violent conflict for the country, at the time of the Russo-Georgian confrontation over South-Ossetia - focused on the professional development of Georgian history educators. The participants were invited to put more emphasis in their work on the history of everyday life and on concepts such as migration, gender, mutual inclusiveness, human rights, diversity and environment. A concrete outcome was a student-centered teaching tool on topics related to Everyday and Family Life, Religion, Migration and Multicultural Life in Georgia in the 20th century.

Project Aims

To support the regional development of History and Citizenship Education in a multicultural and multi confessional environment.

Overall objectives

  1. To further and improve the quality of history education in Georgia in line with the national educational reform policy, encouraging innovation and professionalism and through contributing to the lifelong learning of history educators in the region.
  2. To promote national, regional and international intercultural dialogue by co-operation, communication and networking of history educators.
  3. To contribute to participatory governance, management innovation through professionalisation, effectiveness, and sustainability of the member organisation and by individual capacity building of history educators.


A group of 35 authors and editors with diverse backgrounds developed the teaching tool How We Lived Together in the 20th Century in Georgia. The book is a collection of 29 modules offering innovative sources and teaching ideas for the classroom on topics related to Everyday and Family Life, Religion, Migration and Multicultural Life in Georgia in the 20th century.

The modules were piloted in 24 schools across the country and reviewed by an expert on textbook research from the Georg Eckert Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. 2000 copies were disseminated in schools, universities and libraries to be widely accessible to history educators.

The book comes along with a 150-page teachers’ guide indicating for each module the compliance with the national curriculum.

321 Georgian history educators were involved in project activities, most of them on a regular basis.

9 national training seminars and workshops took place in five different regions in Georgia. Moreover, more than 20 trainings were organised on a local level. The project significantly increased and improved the professional capacity of the individuals involved who became more able and eager to address untouched topics in history, perform innovative methodology and pedagogy, cooperate and share their knowledge with colleagues at the local, national and regional level.

Participants received capacity building training in the form of interactive workshops, lectures and group works by 14 invited international experts from various fields such as innovative history didactics, pedagogy, intercultural communication, history of the region and textbook development.

24 Georgian history educators participated in international trainings in Armenia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Turkey and the UK. Educators participating in activities abroad gave oral and written feedback upon return, thus allowing a wider group to learn from their experiences.

19 history educators from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia and Turkey participated in project activities as regional observers, benefiting from the trainings, sharing their national experience with Georgian colleagues and establishing bilateral and multilateral relations. As a result, two new History Educators’ Associations, the Public Union of the Azerbaijan Historians and the Union of the Armenian History Educators were created and asked for EuroClio membership in 2010.

The Georgian Association of History Educators (GAHE) grew from 30 members in 2008 to almost 300 in 2011, as a result of the setting up of regional branches and a professionalised membership policy. The GAHE branch in Ajara opened a Centre for Methodological Training in History Education at Batumi State University. In Kakheti and Samkhste-Javareti, study rooms for history teachers and their students were created or reactivated in 3 schools. GAHE published two volumes of its magazine on history education, Istorikosi, launched its website, and developed partnerships with other civil society organizations in Georgia.


How We Lived Together in Georgia in the 20th Century

Teachers and Students Books available online in Georgian and Russian

External Review by Robert Maier

Download the External Review

Supported by

MATRA Programme


Georgian Association of History Educators

Project Managers

Joke van der Leeuw-Roord, EuroClio Director

Blandine Smilansky, EuroClio Project Coordinator

Patrick Barker, EuroClio Project Manager


GAHE - Georgian Association of History Educators

Elene Medzmariashvili, Nana Tsikhistavi