Fifth of the series of national trainings in Czech Republic: Let’s teach about the EU!

As part of the Decisions and Dilemmas 3: making learning about the EU motivating and meaningful project, the fifth national training event was held in Prague, the Czech Republic, on 14 and 15 June 2018. The training had as its title “We study and teach – EU” (Učíme (se) o Evropské Unii).

The training kicked off in the afternoon of Thursday 14 June. Following an introduction, the first workshop was called “How do we teach about the EU?” Discussions were held with the participants concerning how to approach the topic of the EU, and what teachers and students think about this subject in the classroom. The argument was made that extensive material exists to assist teachers on the subject, and this raises the question as to why teaching about the EU is still such a hot topic.

Next, Eva Zajícová addressed the need to discuss the approach of the EU as a subject in schools, and subsequently she gave an overview of some of EuroClio’s previous projects and results while explaining the Historiana website. In the light of Historiana’s database, many participants expressed that the usage of English materials does not pose a problem for them. However, others exclaimed that there is the possibility of a language barrier. That is mainly why ‘Decisions and Dilemmas 3’ aims to provide teaching materials about the EU in several languages. These materials can be downloaded from Historiana’s website and adapted to the teacher’s and student’s needs.

Participants proposed to introduce EU teaching in primary schools at an earlier stage, in this way including younger pupils, and by means of incorporating the topic into projects. The classical way of teaching is rather dry and not effective, participants argued, and thus other, innovative, ways of teaching about the EU should be used. Finding “real” situations, speaking about values, and addressing relationships were examples mentioned in the session. Even the usage of an internet game was mentioned but this gadget has to be revised and updated in order to be used as an educative tool in teaching pupils about the EU.

Jiří Beneš led the next workshop on “Opening up Europe’s borders”. The participants were very enthusiastic about this workshop, as it provided a short game that encourages participants to reflect on their own background in relation to bigger social issues. Participants had to imagine the map of the Czech Republic and find the position of the town where they came from. Then, participants had to change positions to the location where their family is from and in this trend reflect on the topic of migration – were your parents/grandparents immigrants? Czech newspapers were used to complement this game by reflecting on articles about the wave of immigration that Europe faces today, and encourage debate among the participants. In this session, the recommendation came forward to use personal stories in order to generate a bigger impact.

The second day of training started with a panel discussion moderated by ASUD President Pavel Martinovsky regarding “Global education and education in the European Context”. In this discussion, participants stressed that personal stories are very valuable in teaching history, as well as showing different viewpoints. Moreover, teachers should not be afraid to address controversial topics. In addition, the drama is a good method to teach history.

The following workshop discussed “Rising from the Ruins: a scripted drama about the important steps leading to EU”, translated by Eva Zajícová, and presented by Croatian international trainer Igor Jovanović. During this workshop, a discussion developed that involved the usage of drama in history education, and participants proposed the idea of using only part of the provided script in order for pupils to find their own course of events, and eventually, their own conclusions.

Regarding the viewpoint of Czech children on the EU, the participants concluded that the pupil’s opinions and views differ greatly from that of the older generation, as the EU has been a part of all the pupil’s life. They have not experienced border checks when going from one Schengen country to another. The participants suggested introducing them with this “unknown” and “inexperienced” part of Czech history in order to understand the situation prior to the EU, and thus understand the value of the EU today. Educating students can also lead to a wider dissemination of EU education in the form of talks and discussions with parents or other family members.

The participants expressed great contentedness regarding the two-day training. Fruitful discussions, the expansion of networks, and the opportunity of applying new teaching techniques were some of the aspects valued most by the participants.

The national training event was organized by the History Teachers Association of the Czech Republic. This article is based on the report written by Eva Zajícová.

National training in Portugal: teaching Europe to enhance EU cohesion

Catalina Gaete Project Updates

As part of the Decisions and Dilemmas 3: making learning about the EU motivating and meaningful project, the sixth national training event was held on the 29th of June, 2018 in Lisbon, at the headquarters of the Portuguese History Teachers Association (APH).

The president of the APH Miguel Monteiro de Barros and Association Member Joaquim Carvalho prepared and implemented the workshops held in this event, with the participation of an international partner and trainer, the Association for Historical Dialogue and Research (AHDR) Educational Officer Loizos Loukaidis from Cyprus. The participants who attended this event were all teachers from different schools of the secondary level. Thirteen were from various locations around the country, and seven were from Lisbon where the training was held.

The event began with Miguel Monteiro de Barros giving a summary of the project’s three phases and highlighting the importance of such a project and its beneficial implications for the integration of the EU. He stressed the importance of focusing more on social and daily life benefits brought by the EU, and less on political data such as treaties. He also informed the participants that amongst the materials provided to them, there was a pen drive that contained the three workshops discussed, in both Portuguese and English versions.

This was followed by the start of the event’s first workshop “Comércio a uma escala global” (Trade in a global context) by Joaquim Carvalho. For this workshop, the participants worked in groups of four and at the end of the session, each group presented its conclusions. All the participants were adamant about the utility of this theme for their teaching practice.

After lunch, Joaquim Carvalho presented the second workshop, which involved the use of drama: “Erguendo-se das ruínas” (Rising from ruins). The activity could not take place given the fact that the space available was not very adequate. Instead, the trainer presented the materials and explained how they could/should be used in a classroom context. After the presentation, there was a discussion about the material.

Then, workshop three dealt with “Opening Europe’s borders”, given by the international partner and trainer Loizos Loukaidis. This workshop was given in English, as one of the prerequisites to attend this event was having knowledge of the English language. Again, the participants were divided into groups in order to discuss the material presented on a smaller scale. The participants found the activities very useful and engaging.

The event ended with a presentation by Miguel Monteiro de Barros about Historiana. He demonstrated how units are grouped and how resources can be accessed through a hands-on activity. The participants were highly engaged in the activity.

Reflecting on the event, participants expressed their genuine interest and determination to include the EU and its integration in their teaching practice. Miguel Monteiro de Barros informed that this project is already having an effect on the Portuguese curricula, as the APH is cooperating with teams from the Ministry of Education on a national project that deals with changing the way various disciplines are taught. The main objective of this project is to teach what is essential with a more practical and transversal approach. The APH was asked by the Ministry of Education to look into the history programs and change them where needed. Some of the outcomes of the project ‘Decisions & Dilemmas’ have been incorporated in that work.

Finally, the participants looked back on the event very positively. The event even ended later than planned due to a high level of participation.

This article is based on the report written by Miguel Monteiro de Barros from the Portuguese History Teachers’ Association.

Successful national training in Cyprus: sharing experiences and methods for teaching about European history

Catalina Gaete Project Updates

As part of the Decisions and Dilemmas 3: making learning about the EU motivating and meaningful project, the Cypriot national training event was held on the 28th and 29th of August, 2018 in Platres.

The workshops of this national training were facilitated by the Educational Programs Officer of the Association for Historical Dialogue and Research (AHDR), Mr. Loizos Loukaidis, Educator and AHDR Associate Researcher Ms. Evie Grouta, and Joaquim Carvalho from the Association of History Educators of Portugal. Participants of the workshop came from diverse backgrounds, including from Greek-speaking and Turkish-speaking primary and secondary education, teachers from public and private schools across the divide in Cyprus as well as youth and NGO workers, graduates of different universities and retired historians and teachers.

The first day of the event started with an introduction to the work of the Association for Historical Dialogue and Research (AHDR) by Loizos Loukaidis. Some participants were already familiar with the work of the AHDR, and thus they were invited to participate in the presentation and contribute to the discussion. This offered a sense of belonging and continuity that impressed new participants. The presentation also offered participants an insight into the vision, mission and different projects and activities of the AHDR. This acquaintance of participants with the organization is expected to act as a multiplier for future events and collaborations.

Following this presentation, Ms. Grouta and Mr. Loukaidis engaged the participants in an introductory workshop on Historiana. In this context, the participants were reminded of basic historical concepts that would be useful for their work during the workshop. Then the tools themselves, Historiana and Europeana, were introduced through a presentation and demonstration. Participants were divided into mixed groups and discussed the execution of different tasks such as the creation of their own learning resources, which they subsequently presented in the plenary. Most participants expressed interest in exploring this new tool and were happy to know that there are also lesson plans provided in their mother tongue. They found the website useful and stated that they will make use of the lesson plans as much as possible. They were also informed that they have the opportunity to modify the level of resources as well as the duration and complexity according to age groups.

On the second day of the event, Ms. Grouta and Mr. Loukaidis elaborated on the research results of ‘Teaching Europe to enhance EU cohesion’ and briefly provided the participants with background information on the overall project and the partners. They stressed the role of EuroClio as the umbrella organization bringing together different educational stakeholders around issues concerning the teaching and learning of History. The workshop facilitators presented the research results, making the necessary connections with the Cypriot context across the divide and invited the participants to share their professional experience. The participants were extremely interested in finding out how such a diverse group of educators working in such different and complex conditions managed to collaborate to bring together the results from such a wide spectrum of educational backgrounds and produce educational material that would cater everybody’s educational needs. The facilitators made sure that participants realized the importance of addressing cross-cutting issues to teach about European History and the necessity to engage in educational activities that highlight the importance of identities and the complexity of interactions in contemporary Europe. During the discussion, participants identified both challenges and opportunities while engaging in the study of the European History, which is – up to a certain extent – neglected because of the focus on local histories and the histories of the so-called motherlands of Cyprus. This engagement with the History of Europe and the EU, according to their feedback, will help them to also understand the regional conditions and draw the connections with other contexts thus connecting the micro to the macro as a prerequisite of the educational process while studying history.

Following the aforementioned presentations, Mr. Carvalho presented the work of his Association in Portugal and, then, himself and Ms. Grouta facilitated the activity “Trade in a Global Context – How does European Trade affect African Chicken farmers?” employing the relevant Historiana unit. The aim of the unit was for participants to understand how complex the question of the impact of the EU trade policy on Africa is and that answers are equally complex. The participants were grouped and worked on the activity sheets provided in order to identify consequences and effects. They discussed ‘Who benefits most from the current practice of exporting cheap chicken meat to Africa?’ and subsequently worked on comparing and contrasting ideas. In addition, participants discussed issues of social justice, post-colonialism, and compassion as well as fair trade practices and the role of citizens and states in this process. Most educators suggested that this lesson plan could also be used in the Geography and Citizenship class. Most importantly, participants engaged in a discussion on the methodological tools employed in this educational process and gave feedback on how they would approach this issue in their classrooms.

Next, participants engaged in educational activities under the theme of ‘Opening Europe’s Borders for People and border controls in a (post)Schengen world – How did the migrant crisis shake the foundations and principles of the European Union?’. The aims of this activity, facilitated by Mr. Loukaidis, were for participants to identify and analyze the positions of various actors in the EU in relation to the migrant crisis, including people who are pro- and anti- ending Schengen freedom of movement, and the perspective of people living outside Schengen. Furthermore, participants had to assess in what ways and to what extent the migrant crisis has influenced relations within the EU and give their own reasoned argument as to how the EU should cope with the migrant crisis.

At a first stage, Mr. Loukaidis presented the history of Schengen and assisted participants in learning to deal with questions that move students from the facts on to starting to form their own opinions. Then, before moving on to group work, he introduced the migrants’ crises with the animated maps so that participants would get acquainted with the main developments and routes of migration to Europe since 2004. Following this background information, the participants were divided into mixed groups (according to community background and gender) and provided with files of source material representing different opinions on the migration crisis and the future of Schengen. Students studied the source material carefully and completed the worksheet which was used in the following discussions.

Representatives of all groups then presented arguments to address different questions using information from the perspectives they had studied. That is, they were taking the position of the viewpoint they had just studied. The facilitator stressed that this technique can help students feel more comfortable discussing emotional and controversial topics. To complete the activity, the participants had to think about what they would write in a paragraph answering the question ‘How did the migrant crisis shake the foundations and principles of the European Union?’. The activity ended with a discussion on how they would transfer the knowledge and skills acquainted through this activity in their educational contexts. It is worth mentioning that the suspension of the Schengen Agreement for Cyprus – due to its political issue – as well as the sensitivities and the restrictions to the freedom of movement from one side of Cyprus to the other were part of the discussions during the reflection phase of this activity.

Overall, the participants were highly engaged and participated actively in all stages of the workshop. The participants welcomed the AHDR team as well as the international expert and all of them were engaging in discussions in mixed groups. They expressed their content about the knowledge and skills provided during the workshop and assured us that, with certain adaptations to their context, they can utilize the knowledge they have gained in their classrooms. They seemed very engaged in discussions about contemporary issues such as migration, fair trade, social responsibility, intercultural understanding etc., and stressed the role of history in suggesting alternatives and as functioning as a vehicle for educational and social change.

This article is based on the report written by Mr. Loizos Loukaidis, Educational Programs Officer of the Association for Historical Dialogue and Research (AHDR).

Third training in Finland: making the EU an interesting topic for students

Catalina Gaete Project Updates

As part of the Decisions and Dilemmas 3: making learning about the EU motivating and meaningful project, the third national training event was held on 5-6 June 2018, in Kallio upper secondary school in Helsinki. The training is based on the translated materials from the Historiana Changing Europe unit. In this event, 32 Finnish history teachers took part, and an international trainer from the Czech Republic, Jiří Beneš, was present as well.

The meeting kicked off with a lecture called “Populism, nationalism and the future of Europe” by Dr. Emilia Palonen from the University of Helsinki. This lecture was followed by a presentation of national trainer Kati Hynönen which treated the topic of Historiana webpages and the project itself, Decisions and Dilemmas III. The overall goal of the project is to make learning about the EU interesting for students while simultaneously conveying more information about the motives and reasons behind political, economic and social initiatives that led to the founding of the EU. This is done by giving students insight in dealing with current issues. Kati Hynönen also presented the results of the Teaching Europe research, which focused on the way the EU is taught in the participating countries by analyzing school textbooks.

 The workshop sessions that followed, consisted of two parallel workshops, namely “Subvertising as a pedagogical tool” held by Eeva Kemppainen, and “Rising from the Ruins” by Kati Hynönen.

“Rising from the Ruins” showcased the situation in post-war Europe and the events that initiated the start of European integration. In order to better understand the unit, the participants took part in several activities, such as studying character cards and taking part in the drama. The play allowed the participants to role-play as various historical figures, like George Marshall and Joseph Stalin. Subsequently, an analysis of the workshop allowed for the participants to share their thoughts about the material and its applicability in their own classrooms. The Finnish history and social studies teachers were extremely excited about the material.

The first day concluded with a field trip to windy Vallisaari island on the Helsinki archipelago, followed by a dinner in the center of Helsinki. Vallisaari island has been in military use and has been open to public only for two years. Fortifications, buildings and a record-breaking range of different species tell a tale of coexistence between humans and wild nature. The second day of the event started with a lecture on meaningful reading, held by Dr. Sara Routarinne from the University of Turku.

This day’s first workshops were held by international trainer Jiří Beneš and Dr. Najat Ouakrim-Soivio from the University of Helsinki. Dr. Najat Ouakrim-Soivio gave a workshop on evaluating the skills in history. Beneš presented the material “Opening Europe’s borders: border controls in a (post-)Schengen world. How did the migrant crisis shake the foundations and principles of the European Union?” With this material, students will consider to what extent the Schengen agreement functions and how much freedom of movement there is within the EU. They will discuss how the EU is dealing with the migrant crisis and how this crisis has influenced the ‘shaking’ of the EU’s foundations. They will also reflect on questions such as whether the migrant crisis is a problem for the entire EU, or only for those countries on route. Moreover, students will look at what is required for someone from outside the Schengen circle in order to get the Schengen Visa.

In the final two workshops, Mr. Tomi Rytkönen talked about the program called “Junior Achievement Finland,” and national trainer Kati Hynönen presented the material “The challenge of European stability”. By using this material, students will learn about the ups and downs of European stability from 1945 until today, and learn how Europeans have responded to the challenge of maintaining stability. Overall, the participants of this two-day event were positive about the program and considered the workshops very meaningful.

The national training event was organized in cooperation with The Association for Teachers of History and Social Studies in Finland. The text and pictures are from the report written by Kirsi Ruhanen.

Second training organized as part of DD3 project in Bulgaria

EuroClio Project Updates

As part of the Decisions and Dilemmas 3: making learning about the EU motivating and meaningful project, the second national training event was held on 18-20 May 2018 in Vidin, Bulgaria. As the event was organized over three days, multiple plenary and workshop sessions were held.

The program was opened on Friday with an official greeting from Mr. Vladko Valchev, expert on Social sciences and Civic education from Regional Direction on Education – Vidin. Following that, national project coordinator Bistra Stoimenova introduced the project to the participants, as well as parts of the Historiana “Changing Europe” unit and the main issues, learning options and resources. Following the introduction, a presentation on teaching about the EU from the House of European History was given by Petya Georgieva.

The following day, on May 19, two workshop sessions were organized. First workshop was given by Marino Maqueda, an international trainer from Spain, on Life and Leisure: the history of ordinary people – “I was a soldier in the German army” – How did WW2 affect the life of an ordinary teenage boy? This workshop used materials from a Historiana learning activity from the Changing Europe unit. The units are based on the two life stories of Igor Slaveć and Thomas Fidalgo Margazon, and throughout the workshop, the participants had to follow their paths in WWII and in the post-war period Europe, while comparing their stories and possibilities. The second workshop, titled Teaching history of communist past and civic education: tools, good practices and experience, was presented by Louisa Slavkova from the Sofia Platform foundation, and it showcased how educators can teach about the recent Bulgarian past and the communist regime in schools. During the workshop, several useful techniques on how to develop learning materials were presented. Discussion in the end of the workshop showed how the topic was sensitive and its dealings in the classroom could pose a challenge for educators.

Along with the workshops, Bistra Stoimenova organized a plenary session, where the results of the Teaching Europe research were presented, focusing on the way European integration is being taught in Bulgaria and other participating countries, by analysing school textbooks. Participants all agreed that the research helps to change “how” teachers can teach important, interdisciplinary topics.

The program was complemented by on-site learning activities. The town of Vidin allowed the participants to visit several historical sites, such as Baba Vida fortress, the Turkish konak and the mosque of Osman Nuri Pasha amongst others. As part of the trip, the Serbian town of Zaječar, along with its National Museum and the Archaeological site Felix Romuliana were visited.

On May 20, Petya Georgieva gave a workshop on Rising from the Ruins: Rebuilding Europe after World War Two. Following the activity, which consisted of participants role-playing as various historical figures, those participating were able to share their ideas on how best they can use the drama in the classroom.

At the end of the training, the last plenary session was organized on Teaching about a Europe without dividing lines. This is an online publication of the Council of Europe (“Shared Histories for a Europe without Dividing Lines”) This resource uses different methodologies of “shared histories” throughout several common topics in the history curriculum of states members of Council of Europe, such as Industrial revolution.

Overall, the event was quite a success.  The workshops, materials and on-site learning provoked teachers to think critically on the educational content in the history curriculum. In a post-training evaluation, majority of participants agreed that the training provided them with useful networking opportunities as well as helped them improve and strengthen future cooperation.

The national training event was organized in cooperation with the Bulgarian History Teachers Association. The text and pictures are from the report written by Bistra Stoimenova.

Decisions and Dilemmas III: Making Learning about the EU Motivating and Meaningful

About the project

This project was a continuation of the previous projects Decisions and Dilemmas I and II. It aimed to further support educators across Europe in teaching about the European Union in a motivating and meaningful way that resonates with students. We hope that through this, students became more aware and active in Europe’s democracy. The ambition of this project was to make educators, and thus students, aware of the importance of the EU and the complexities that accompany policy and decision making in the EU.

Project Aims

The project aimed to spread the content (resources) that were developed in three previous projects (D&D1, D&D2,  and Teaching Europe) to educators and citizens living in Europe.

People Involved

The project included eight partner countries, where the country coordinators of each country organised national training events with the project materials in their local languages. Coordinators also contributed to the project by identifying relevant communication channels for the dissemination and awareness raising campaign. Additionally national trainers were responsible to host workshops with the project materials during their national events, and during one of the other trainers. The people involved were:

  • Bulgaria: Bulgarian History Teachers’ Association, Petya Georgieva and Bistra Stoimenova
  • Croatia: Croatian History Teachers’ Association, Igor Jovanović and Vedran Ristić
  • Cyprus: Association for Historical Dialogue and Research, Loizos Loukaidis and Alev Tugberk
  • Czech Republic: History Teachers’ Association of Czech Republic, Jiri Benes and Eva Zajicova
  • Finland: Finnish Association for Teachers of History and Social Studies, Kati Hynonen and Kirsi Ruhanen
  • Latvia: Latvian History Teachers’ Association, Edgars Berzins and Ansis Nudiens
  • Portugal: Portuguese History Teachers’ Association, Joaquim Freire de Carvalho and Miguel Barros
  • Spain: Spanish Association of History and Geography Teachers, Marino Maqueda and Maria Jesus Campos

Trainings

The following activities were part of the project: An international train the trainer event, a series of national training and awareness raising events, the translation of open educational resources and research results from previous projects and the implementation of a European dissemination and awareness raising campaign.

The aim of training events was to help educators promote learning about the EU that is both motivating and meaningful for students. This is because the teaching practices in most European countries are not preparing young people to fully participate in Europe’s democracy. Over the period of April until August of 2018, several national training events were organized. These were organized as follows:

  • April: Cyprus
  • May: Bulgaria, Croatia and Cyprus
  • June: Czech Republic, Finland and Spain
  • August: Latvia and Cyprus

On top of these trainings , EuroClio also organized a “Train the Trainer” seminar in February 2018, during which educators that participated in the training events were thought about why teaching about the EU matters, they had access to exemplar learning resources that they could use in their own language, and were trained on how to use these resources to make learning about the EU motivating and meaningful (because the resources are inquiry based and make use of active methods)

“Teaching Europe” research

The aim of the research was to answer the question on “how is European integration taught in the final two years of compulsory education in the 28 member states of the European Union?”

The goal of the research was as follows:

  • Help improving the way teaching and learning about the EU is taking place
  • Establish the common features and fundamental differences in teaching EU throughout the different EU member states
  • Provide a response to the wishes expressed by EU institutions to improve teaching on European integration as enhancing social cohesion within the Union
  • Nourish the European debate on how to articulate identification with the European project for a shared future

Educators that were involved in the project were asked to identify 2 school books for history education which are most widely used to teach European integration in member state and analyse their EU-related contents, and the 2 books most used in another social science subject and analyse their EU-related contents. They were then asked to fill in a questionnaire that was divided into sections, in order to have a full image of what the textbooks cover on European integration.

  • Textbooks details
  • Coverage of the EU
  • The origins of the EU & EU integration
  • Enlargement of the EU
  • EU institutions and policies
  • Historical figures
  • EU in relation to your and other countries

The data accumulated has been analyzed and the full scope of research can be found here. However, the conclusion is as follows:

  1. Presentation of EU consists of a mostly positive narrative
    • EU history is detached from other history
    • EU is seen as external and there appears to be little room for ordinary people
  2. Future recommendations and directions
    • EU history should not be detached from the rest of history. It has been almost 70 years since the signing of the Rome Treaty and the EU has been a key factor in many areas of life in Europe.
    • Methods should be motivating and should be based on active teaching and learning methods.
    • EU should further invest in developing innovative educational resources, and make existing ones available in more languages.
    • EU should increase its focus on school education.

Outcomes

A variety of resources were disseminated to educators and students alike, which fall under the following themes related to the development of The EU project:

The way the EU is currently being taught- These resources were spread in order to help educators to critically reflect on the way the EU is currently being taught and the implications of this approach, and therefore be triggered to develop their own vision on how teaching about the EU should ideally look like.

  • The results of a comparative analysis of the way European Integration is currently presented in school textbooks in all 28 member states (conducted in 2015).
  • Scans of the maps, cartoons and photographs that are used in these textbooks on the pages dealing with European integration.

Post-War Europe (1944-1951) – These resources were spread as they 1) help educators to engage students with the challenges facing Europeans, and their hopes and fears for the future, as the continent emerged from a war-torn first half of the 20th century, and 2) help youngsters understand why a group of political leaders wanted to establish a means of facilitating social and economic integration leading eventually to some kind of greater political integration.

  • A collection of 24 life stories of ordinary people living in Europe after the end of World War 2. All of these stories are written up from the lives of real people. The stories are presented to help students to empathise with the human side of the years 1945-49.
  • Evidence files under the themes: Changing borders, New governments, Life goes on, Infrastructure destruction, Hunger and hardship, Destroying the National Socialist world, Displaced people and refugees, and Never again. Students can use the materials in these files to research what life was like in Europe the period 1945-49 and make judgements about how useful the different types of sources are for different purposes.
  • A learning activity "Life in Europe 1945-1949 - What was it like to live in postwar Europe?"
  • A scripted drama “Rising from the Ruins: Rebuilding Europe after World War Two. How did the aftermath of World War Two lead to the founding of the European Union?”

The EU in the context of the long search for stability – These resources were spread as they help educators show to students that the European project has been different from the previous attempts to manage conflict and establish stability in Europe:

  • A multi-stranded timeline “Managing conflict in times of change”.
  • A learning activity "Managing conflict in Europe in times of Change: 1648 – 1945. What can we learn from a timeline about conflict management in Europe?"
  • A learning activity "A comparison of European peace treaties. What are the similarities and differences between some of the key European peace treaties?"

The EU in the context of a changing world – These resources were spread as they help educators show to students how and why decisions are made and exploring the dilemmas that Europe has faced, and continues to face, and how the EU has adapted to changing international circumstances in the second half of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st:

  • A learning activity "Old fears and new threats: Western European defence negotiations - How revealing are the negotiations over European defence 1948-1954 about the hopes and fears of the people involved?"
  • A learning activity "Why has it proved so difficult to agree a common European foreign policy? Examining the evidence to explore dilemmas and decisions about European foreign policy."
  • A learning activity "Exploring the Common Agricultural Policy What is the CAP and is it still needed?
  • A learning activity "The challenge of European stability - How stable has Europe been 1945-today?"
  • A learning activity ‘Unity in Diversity’: What makes it possible for European countries to work together to operate as a global power?
  • A learning activity “Economic imbalances in Europe. What kind of dilemmas may result from our economic choices?”
  • A learning activity “The EU and trade in a global context. How does European trade policy affect African chicken farmers?”
  • A learning activity “Should we feel anxious about Europe’s energy dependency?”
  • A learning activity “Opening Europe’s Borders for People and border controls in a (post)Schengen world’. How did the migrant crisis shake the foundations and principles of the European Union?”

The report of the first meeting and a list of the translated activities is now available here.

The report of the second meeting and a list of the translated activities is now available here.

The report of the third meeting is now available here.

The report of the fourth meeting and a list of the translated activities is now available here.

The report of the fifth meeting and a list of the translated activities is now available here.

The report of the sixth meeting and a list of the translated activities is now available here.