Football Makes History

Innovative collaborations of school education and youth through the prism of local football history for social inclusion and diversity

For the latest updates on the project, please consult the dedicated Football Makes History website!


About the Project

Some would say history is just one damned thing after the other, that it should be put to rest in the past and that bygones should be bygones. These people are not necessarily wrong, but in an ever-complex world of globalised societies and rising exclusivist identity-politics, the stories we tell ourselves about the past help us define ourselves in the present and orient toward an unpredictable future.

Some would say football is nothing more than 22 people chasing a ball around a pitch for 90 minutes. Also those people are not necessarily wrong, but history is made up of whatever people have come to value, and certainly football - a game played and watched by billions for over 100 years - seems highly valued.

We would say that football history is made up of millions of stories, of individuals and communities, of movements and processes, which can open doors to the conversations we need to have in the present. Players who came from nothing to become international super-stars. Clubs which have been established to foster minority identities and belonging. People who have faced exclusion in a racist and bigoted past.

Our European Football stories, starting with your local neighbourhood club, can not only excite the football and history fans but in particular create a space where those that are marginalised in European societies are included, feel belonging so that everybody can seek active citizenship.

Sport – and particularly football – appeals to millions of Europeans, regardless of their sexual orientation, colour, gender, age, nationality or religion, often becoming a defining factor of identities and communities. The rich local cultural heritage of football and its shared history covering the turbulent 20th century history offers direct access to addressing past and present diversity. In addition, it helps to promote shared values, equality, non-discrimination and social inclusion with an integrated perspective, encompassing and innovating formal and non-formal learning, as well as youth work. This project will see a unique European team, including a Football Federation, a professional Football Club, the renowned Anne Frank House and FARE Network, together with European networks of history educators and youth workers.

Project Aims

The overall aim of the project is to contribute to the reduction of the number of people at risk of social exclusion across Europe by pursuing these specific objectives:

  • Promote diversity, non-discrimination and equality, including gender equality;
  • Innovate formal and non-formal learning leading to social, civic and intercultural competences and critical thinking;
  • Support the professional development of educators and youth workers and build the capacity to develop and implement innovative teaching methods;
  • Engage cultural heritage for all by accessing the histories, memories and legacies residing in football history in transnational perspectives on all levels;
  • Raise public awareness on the role of learning for social inclusion and increase the sharing of innovative practices across the continent.

Expected Outcomes

  • Needs Assessment: The project aims to produce a needs assessment through mapping and analysing existing approaches that use learning about local football history to enhance social inclusion and promote diversity. This output will gather data through local piloting sessions and an international survey, including data from over 300 individuals with from over 30 countries in or neighbouring the European Union. Download the full Needs Assessment here.
  • Toolkit: This output involves a toolkit for using historical and cultural heritage dimensions of football to enhance social inclusion and promote diversity in non-formal settings. The toolkit is a user-friendly and practical collection of 30 exemplar approaches to use and a guidebook on how to use them for youth workers and other educators involved in non-formal education
  • Exemplar Learning Activities: The Exemplar Learning Activities on European Football History for social inclusion and promotion of diversity (also referred to as Handbook) will be made available as an Open Educational Resource and will contain 30 activities that support teachers with dealing with diversity in the classroom, with tackling rising intolerance and with engaging students in an innovative and meaningful manner. See all learning activities on
  • Policy Recommendations: The Policy Recommendations for Education, Youth, Football and Sport will identify to policy makers in which way the findings of the Needs Assessment either support or contradict existing policies of using football history as a tool within formal and informal education and will make clear what kind and at what level changes are needed. Download the Policy & Action Recommendations here.
  • Public Awareness Campaign: The campaign targets the wider society, urging major bodies in football and education to get behind the campaign and valorising research and educational approaches performed at the local level. In short, the campaign will have five components: a central campaign website, an event package, a short video, liveblogging at peak visibility moments, and ambassadors recruited amongst players who are well-known and support the priorities and objectives of the project. See


The project will be implemented with the financial support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union as part of the initiative “Football History for Inclusion –Innovative collaborations of school education and youth through the prism of local football history for social inclusion and diversity.

Project Partners

Project Coordinators

Alice Modena (Project Manager)

Andreas Holtberget (Project Manager)

Academic Advisor

Prof. Dr. Gijsbert Oonk (1966) holds the Jean Monnet Chair (ad Personam) on Migration, Citizenship and Identity. He is the founding director of Sport and Nation.

Project team

Project Partners

Joram Verhoeven, Willem Wagenaar (Anne Frank House)

Matthias Thoma, Frauke Koenig (Eintracht Frankfurt Museum)

Jonathan Even Zohar (Evenzo Consultancy)

Niels van Muijden, Alexandra Solomon (Fare Network)

Daniel Petcu (Romanian Football Federation)


Team Members

Anika Leslie-Walker, Ansley Manos Hofmann

Christoforos Pavlakis, Christopher Heim

Claire Mulvenna, Dario Brentin

David Webber, Denver Russell Charles

Dolores Galindo Fontán, Enrico Cavalieri

Ernest Brennan, Fernando Gallego Pedraza

Geir Ove Halvorsen, Gian Marco Duina

Igor Jovanović, Inemarie Dekker

Ivan Belička, Juan Carlos Ocaña

Leanne Norman, Marcel Put

Marisa Schlenker, Martin Liepach

Miachael Correia, Peter Bijl

Rico Noack, Sean Huddleston

Stefán Svavarsson, Thomas Auguste Farines

Thomas Babila Sama, Ute Ackermann Boeros

Valerio Bernardi, Zdravko Stojkoski

[PARTNER] Remembrance Education for THINKing critically (RETHINK)

About the Project

In the past few years, various events including terrorist attacks in Europe have exposed divisions within our societies, and in particular a growing tendency to think in terms of “us” and “them”. Against this background, memorial institutions and democracy-building NGOs have designed programmes that promote tolerance and respect towards diversity, while developing media literacy and critical thinking skills. 

​The RETHINK project (Remembrance Education for THINKing critically) facilitated the collection and spread of these programmes as a tool to promote the development of remembrance education across Europe, showing the origins and consequences of exclusion and prejudice. We believe that remembrance education, in linking past and present, sheds valuable light on the historical significance of polarised identities, offers insight into European history, and tools to combat intolerance.

​Within a project consortium of eight different memorial institutes and organisations working in the field of education, EuroClio was responsible for managing the process of upscaling (that is, the collection and adaptation to new contexts) models and good practices of non-formal remembrance education, especially looking at how to bring these practices to the classroom. We formed a group of experts, who analyzed practices from the partner organisations, as well as practices collected through an open survey. With them, we produced a teachers’ guide on how these practices could be adjusted to make them fit for use in a wider context, in the formal education sector.

​For more information about the consortium and the project's results, please visit

The structure of the project

The project RETHINK was divided in six “work packages”. The first three were focused on the creation of material that could be used by educators in their day-to-day job, while the other three were focused on all the additional steps that are necessary to keep a project running. Here is a list of each package, focused on their relevance for (history and citizenship) educators:

  1. The creation of an online database consisting of collected practices from informal education institutions aimed at preventing radicalisation (led by the Shoah Memorial, France). The online database is now available on the project page, and in June 2021 contained 76 different entries. For each practice, it provides information about who is the author, who is the target group of the practice (students, youth, teachers, adults, …), and the methodology applied. Many of the collected practices can be accessed online and used by all readers. The database is still open and accepting new entries.

You can access the RETHINK Database this link: 

  1. The creation of a Teachers’ Guide on Remembrance Education, developed by a team of experts under EuroClio’s leadership. In 2018 and 2019, we have analysed more in depth 10 of the practices collected in the database. An international team of experts took these and tried to apply them in a new context (such as, in a different country from where it was designed), with new content (for example, methodologies used to teach about the Holocaust have been used to tackle slavery), and with a different target (from adults to university students, from teacher trainees to high school students). The team has taken all the lessons learned in this process (which is sometimes referred to as “upscaling”), and compiled a Teachers’ Guide, filled with practical tips and tricks, based on this experience. 

You can access the Teachers’ Guide at this link: 

  1. The design of an eLearning Platform that elaborates on the lessons learned during the creation of the Teachers’ Guide, ultimately providing educators and teachers with a self-paced course on Remembrance Education. The design of the Platform was led by CESIE (Italy). The Platform will remain available online until 2024, and registration to it is free of charge. It features these modules:
  • Making the past relevant for today
  • Applying multiperspectivity in Remembrance Education
  • Methodologies and Approaches (divided in Remembrance Site Visits, the use of Video Testimonies, and using Digital Archives in the Classroom)
  • Challenging Exclusion: thinking critically (divided in Dealing with Hate Speech, Addressing Propaganda Today, and Deconstructing Prejudices and Stereotypes and Fighting Racism)

You can enroll to the eLearning Platform (or access it as a guest to have a look at the modules) at this link: 

  1. CESIE (Italy) and Kazerne Dossin (Belgium) were the leaders of the Communication package. As part of this, we set up the RETHINK Social Media channels (you can find us on Twitter and Facebook), which are still active and promoting relevant resources regarding Remembrance Education, Critical Thinking, and the prevention of Radicalisation. As part of this package, we have also promoted a series of online events in early 2021: the EuroClio-led “Lest we Forget” webinar series, and the RETHINK Conference. The Conference videos are all still available on the RETHINK Website, and focus on:
  • Historical Persistence of Collective Violence and Critical Thinking in Remembrance Education;
  • The case of bringing Remembrance Education to the classroom;
  • Remembrance education in practice:
    • How can we present a difficult past in a way that is meaningful today?
    • How to bring Theory into Practice? 
    • The role of public authorities 

To make sure that all the lessons learned and connections made during the projects would not go to waste, as part of this package we have also:

  • Developed some Policy Recommendations to support and help teachers and educators in their education efforts to enhance media literacy and critical thinking skills of their students in close collaboration with other partners such as museums and memorials and to overcome the challenge of dealing with controversial issues in their classrooms;
  • Launched the RETHINK Network. This network will strive to facilitate transnational collaboration between memorial institutions, relevant NGOs and other institutions and stakeholders in the field of remembrance education in Europe. Membership to the Network is open and free, and members will meet (online) once a year to discuss new developments in the field of remembrance education, as well as receive periodic updates about this topic.
  1. France Education International (France) was the lead coordinator of the project, and took care of the day-to-day Management of the activities.
  2. As coordinator, FEI was also in charge of the Evaluation of each project result.

Latest news

At a glance:


The project will be implemented with the financial support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union as part of the initiative ...


Project Coordinators

Alice Modena (Project Manager and Professional Development Coordinator)

Catherine Savitsky (Project Manager)

Project Partners


Learning to Disagree

​About the project

​In our world today young people are increasingly influenced by social media and the information found on the internet. This exposes young people to different extremist ideologies and alternative facts. Teachers are often confronted with radical views and expected to deal with them. This project aims to aid educators in how to constructively discuss and debate these issues by exploring different aspects of an issue. The competences that students have learned through meaningful dialogue and debate at school will also enable these students to deal constructively with tensions and disagreement in their daily life.

Project Aims

​​The project empowered educators across Europe to enable students to acquire social and civic competences through debates, dialogue and discussion on contested issues as part of their formal education.

Expected Outcomes

Needs Assessment

The needs assessment was designed to assess what educators need in order to help their students to acquire social and civic competences through dialogue, debate and discussion on contested issues. Read the full Needs Assessment Report here.

Exemplar content for dialogue, debate and discussion

A skilled team of 14 history educators has developed, as part of this project, 15 sets of content that enable students and educators to have dialogue, debates and discussions on contested issues. Each set of contents provides information on the issues at stake, the historical context, a variety of viewpoints, and questions that made students think.

These sets of content focus on four different themes:

  • People on the Move (The case of the Vlora Cargo Ship, How are Migrants Perceived, Why do people move)
  • Borders, Annexations and Secessions (The Catalan Referendum, the Northern Irish border, the case of Crimea, and the case of Kosovo)
  • Surviving Under Pressure (The Algerian War, Leaders in times of Turmoil, the Wealth Tax in Turkey, and the Famine in Greece)
  • Contested Cultural Heritage (Rhodes Must Fall, Changing Street Names in Serbia, and the Hagia Sofia in Turkey)

All these sets of content are available on, in the Historical Content section. To further help teachers using these resources, the Learning to Disagree team has developed dedicated lesson plans, which are available on in the Teaching and Learning section.

Teacher's guide on dialogue, debate and discussion

This guide is incorporated in the comprehensive “Learning to Disagree Teachers’ Guide”. Part 2 (Teacher Guide to support the use of discussion, debate and dialogue as teaching methods) of the document is designed to help educators to apply dialogue, debate and discussion in practice. The guide includes support material for at least 12 types of dialogue, debate and discussion, including information that educators could use on which type works best in which context. The guide is  available in 13 languages. 

Teachers guide on assessing social and civic competences

This guide is incorporated in the comprehensive “Learning to Disagree Teachers’ Guide”. Part 3 (Assessing competences) includes descriptions of the competences, aligned with various international documents, including the Council of Europe Competences for Democratic Culture (2016). It set out to help educators identify what competences students need to develop further, and helped educators to make clear what needs to be done in order to be competent.

Training package on how to use the educational resources

The training package consists of a set of resources that could be used for presentations, workshops and other training elements that helped educators to use the resources developed in the project. The training package is available upon request: if you would like to receive it, please contact us at

Policy recommendations

The policy recommendations point out to policy makers in what way the findings of the needs assessment either support or contradict existing policies which facilitate a teacher’s ability to not only de-escalate tensions in the classroom but channel them into constructive dialogue, discussion and debate that in turn supports learning. They also illustrate to what extent the exemplar content  is illustrative of the capacity of history education, including its specific methodology of multiperspectivity in fostering student’s ability to cope with a variety of viewpoints, is able to enhance in the wider learning process. Building on this, the recommendations identify opportunities and challenges for mainstreaming this in history education. From the two guiding materials, essential elements which could be enhanced through educational policies, were highlighted.

At a glance:


The project will be implemented with the financial support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union as part of the initiative “Learning to Disagree".

Project Coordinator

Alice Modena (Project Manager and Professional Development Coordinator)

Project Partners

Project team

Project Partners

Barbara Christophe & Maren Tribukait (Georg Eckert Institute )

Dr Anthony Malone & Dr Majella Dempsey (Maynooth Univeristy)

Helen Snelson (Mount School York)

Lidija Šuica &Marko Šuica (Education for the 21st Century)