Visibility Matters: Queer History

Maayke De Vries Reviews

Teaching Tolerance (2018 - 2019). Queer America”. In partnership with University of Wisconsin Press. Hosted by Leila Rupp and John D’Emilio. Available on Spotify, Google Music, Apple Podcasts. 

Podcasts are a great way to engage with new thoughts and insights, as they are entertaining yet highly informative and always available. All of the above is applicable to the podcasts series produced by Teaching Tolerance named Queer America. Teaching Tolerance is a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors hate groups in the United States of America and promotes social justice in education. Teaching Tolerance provides teachers with classroom resources and professional development to promote anti-bias education. In this article the podcast series will be reviewed by firstly assessing the need for such a resource, thereafter providing a short summary of the topics discussed, along with some ideas and example lessons inspired by the podcast series. 

Why Teach Queer History?  

In a report conducted by the European Agency for Fundamental Rights in 2013, the alarm was raised. It gave a shockingly negative account of the experiences of LGBTQ students in Europe. One of the concerns was the lack of factual information about sexuality and gender diversity to counteract stereotypes and biased information. The United Nations explicitly endorsed to teach respecting and appreciating diversity in their framework for Global Citizenship Education. EUROCLIO as well signifies inclusion as one of their main focus areas. In reality, however, LGBTQ history is rarely discussed in the media, museums, research, let alone in public education. Last year, Scotland was one of the first nations in the world to make LGBTQ history a mandatory part of the curriculum. The podcast Queer America tries to fill this void by helping educators in finding ways to incorporate LGBTQ history in the curriclum.

The Gist of the Podcast 

As of now, the series exists out of thirteen episodes of about an hour. Each episode has its own distinct theme which can be historical or pedagogical. The podcast is hosted by Leila Rupp, a professor in feminism, and John D’Emilio, a professor in women’s and gender studies, who receive guests to talk about a certain topic. The first three episodes discuss how educators can go about engaging students with the histories of queer people. In these episodes many references are made to the guide created by Teaching Tolerance, which gives practical advice on creating a community of trust and respect for everyone (for example by creating a classroom contract, as mentioned in this blog). 

In other episodes topics in queer history are explored. The podcast is produced in the United States of America (US), thus it is US-focussed. Nevertheless, World War II is an event that allows for an investigation on the contrasting impact of war on various groups. In episode seven, historian Susan Freeman suggests to delve into the concept of freedom in relation to World War II, because whose freedom mattered during the war? The queer community experienced a lot of scrutiny and policing during that time. However, it also brought a lot of young men together during moments of vulnerability, hence a carpe diem mentality arose and gay men sought each other’s company despite repercussions. Other historical moments discussed are the “Lavender Scare” during the Cold War, protests in the 1960s, the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and 1990s, and same-sex romantic friendships in the 19th century. All these events take place in the US, nonetheless they provide educators with hints about what stories are waiting for us to be unburied and examined in our classrooms. 

Ideas

By listening to different experts explaining their approach to teaching queer history, a wide variety of possibilities are demonstrated. One example is addressing during every unit the question: “ Who is included and whose voices are we missing?”. Besides acknowledging that certain voices are missing, it also encourages educators to address the question why this is the case. Thus, this means to consider the way in which history is written and why some stories are revealed while others forgotten. Hereby cultural norms, societal expectations, and power structures are exposed. Researching historical figures who were gay or transgender is another way of incorporating queer history into the curriculum. It is possible to find such a person for every time period. Teaching Tolerance included a list of historical figures in their guide. The example given in episode thirteen is a research into the life of Lorraine Hansberry, which allows for a discussion on intersecting identities like sexual orientation, race, and class. In an European context, such investigation can be done into the life of April Ashley or Josephine Baker

Examples 

In the podcast, the guide for the subject social science, created by the Californian State Board of Education in 2016, is often used as an example of how to incorporate seamlessly queer history into a standardized curriculum. In this framework there is a critical approach towards all topics in the standard US curriculum, starting with an examination of something basic and important as family. This is a great opportunity to make students familiar with diverse families. An example is a lesson for grade 6 based on the question: “What makes a family?”. Firstly, students create a drawing of what they think a family looks like, thereafter they look at photos of diverse families (blended families, multigenerational families, families from different religious background, gay parents and their childeren, etc.). Students analyse the photos by describing what they see on them. After a class discussion, students answer the central question again and indicate their change in thinking. Another way to incorporate a discussion about gender binary is discussing masculinity, which the podcast does by highlighting the New Deal period. Teachers can do a similar inquiry about masculinity in Europe, which created unequal expectations for men and women based on their sexes. Any attempts are a beginning, as the most important message of the podcast is to start the discussion about queer history in your classrooms.

Conclusion

The podcast accomplishes to inspire educators to teach about the histories of gay, lesbian, and transgender people. The hosts interview experts on different topics, thereby focussing on historical and pedagogical topics. The podcast aims to encourage teachers to have these - sometimes - controversial conversations in the classroom. One point of criticism is the assumption of the producers that educators have a willingness to take this step, as it does not delve into the need for actions from teachers. Furthermore, the podcast is created in the US, therefore this is also their focus. Nevertheless, European educators can take lessons from the podcast and incorporate the framework and ideas in their own curriculum. Perhaps this can encourage educators in Europe to demand the inclusion of LGBTQ history in all curricula, making Scotland the example and not the exception. 

Maayke de Vries
History teacher at International School Almere
PhD Student UCL Institute of Education
www.mizsdafreeze.com 

Sui Generis’ Pequeñas Anécdotas sobre las Instituciones: Art and youth culture under censorship

Agustin De Julio Reviews

Charly Garcia, Argentinean musician and larger-than-life figure, was arrested for indecent exposure after a concert in the province of Mendoza. Minutes before, an agent knocked on the door of his dressing room, announcing himself: ‘Open up, I’m a policeman’. Garcia, silver tongued as ever, responded: ‘It’s not my fault you didn’t study enough.’

Though there is disagreement about if this anecdote happened during the bloody Argentinean dictatorship of 1976-1983 or after, it still paints an eloquent picture of Sui Generis’ songwriter and the general disrespect for authority of a great part of an Argentinean generation, a tradition lovingly passed on to younger generations.

The record was initially conceptualised as an oeuvre with one track dedicated to each pertinent institution of Argentina under the several dictatorships of the ‘70s and the María Estela de Peron government. Las Increíbles Aventuras del Señor Tijeras (The incredible adventures of Mr Scissors), targeted directly the government censorship body, depicted the censor as a tormented, perverted bureaucrat taking disproportionate pleasure in cutting and discarding sections of film rolls. Música de Fondo para Cualquier Fiesta Animada (Background music for any given lively party) charges fiercely at the judiciary for their defective moral compass and general inaction in the face of injustice. Botas Locas (Crazy Boots), mocks the army, through Garcia’s own experience of being drafted: ‘If they are the Fatherland, then I’m a foreigner.’ Unsurprisingly, this track did not make the final cut, under political pressure to drop it from the final pressing. Censorship is the factor that ended up giving the record its identity and form. From the initial idea, a loose concept album developed, with lyrics carefully adjusted to bypass censorship. The euphemisms and lively images painted by the duo ended up marking a whole generation of Argentines: the message, censored as it was, was universal enough to be understood by whoever was willing to listen.

Argentina, during the times of Sui Generis, was in a state of extreme political turbulence. After the democratically elected General Peron’s death in 1974, his last wife and running mate, Maria Estela, took the role of acting president. De Peron struggled to profile herself as legitimate, and faced relentless pressure from both left-wing armed insurrection and right-wing factions of the military opposed to her rule. Her political alliance with the Argentinean Anti-Communist Alliance, a military backed, right-wing death squad which persecuted political opponents and established an intricate censorship apparatus, meant that the press, artists, and intellectuals were constantly under scrutiny.

Instituciones marked the end of the road for Sui Generis. The duo, once famous for their beautifully crafted folk ballads, left their niche to embrace modern instruments and venture into political satire, a move not particularly valued by the public or the press. Both went on to become successful solo artists, with Garcia penning several generational anthems about the dark times of the Argentinian military dictatorship.

Why should you not listen to this album?

Instituciones, a conceptual work recorded under strict surveillance and state censorship, does not explicitly give away details of the inner workings of the late María Estela de Perón government, nor directly comments on the impending coup d’etat. Instead, it delivers social commentary under extreme external pressure. It does not lend itself for zingers or direct quotations ready to include in the classroom. Musically, the duo’s incursion into progressive rock and synthesisers might be alienating for the casual listener.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

Instituciones is a paramount showcase of popular culture intersecting with momentous historical trends. It is a reminder to educators to look beyond the classics, and not to forget the importance of popular movements throughout history. This example also encourages history educators to employ multidisciplinary approaches in the classroom that go beyond the textbook.

Baez will always feature in Vietnam War lessons. Dylan is central to the Civil Rights Movement. In the same fashion, Sui Generis is paramount to Argentine youth culture under authoritarianism. Such responses to authoritarianism and censorship can be found in most cases throughout the past century and are worthy of attention in the classroom, given the enormous potential for resonance among students of the topic of youth resistance. EUROCLIO’s project Silencing Citizens through Censorship developed educational resources on a number of European cases of state censorship, such as Vichy France, Franco’s Spain and post-1945 Hungary, which are excellent to treat this sensitive topic. This review is, ultimately, also a reminder of the importance of inculcating students with a deep respect for free speech, especially in times when it cannot be taken for granted.

Author Sui Generis
Original title Pequeñas Anécdotas sobre las Instituciones
Original language Spanish
Available in Spanish
Publication year 1974
Length 40'26''
Genre Folk rock, progressive rock

‘The German War’, a book that sometimes makes you hold your breath

Joke Van der Leeuw-Roord Reviews

This book review was written by Joke van der Leeuw-Roord, EUROCLIO Founder and Special Advisor.

Interest in the Second World War has been part of my life, as I was born in the shadow of this war and I was made aware of it through many stories of my parents’ family and friends and by its physical legacy in my surroundings. This was similar to most of Dutch people of my generation, however at one point it was very different: I had an uncle living in Germany. He had been a forced laborer, had fallen seriously ill and was nursed back into life by a woman; he subsequently fell in love with. My family met them on a more or less regular basis, and as soon as my mother and aunt were together, they started to quarrel about their level of War victimhood. As a Dutch child I of course had no compassion with my German aunt, and for long I time experienced stories about the German suffering merely as propagandistic, to release the burden of a dark past. However eventually my professional curiosity got the better hand and in the last five years I have been intensely engaged to get a better understanding of what the war and its legacy meant for the Germans themselves. I consider The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945 written by the Oxford historian Nicholas Stargardt as a great read for developing such insights.

The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945 offers wide insights into the German experience from the view point of soldiers and civilians in the late Thirties and during the war time, using a wide range of source materials, among them many letters and diaries. Stargardt follows several of their authors over a longer period of time. Through this approach, the reader is able to follow the whereabouts and patters of thinking of several individuals and couples. Through these documents it becomes clear that much more was known, written or said about issues, that people outside Germany considered always highly secret in the Third Reich. Censorship of the letters from the soldiers was surprisingly minor; the fate of the Jews was therefore common knowledge. When the bombing of German cities in 1943 becomes very intense, he demonstrates that the general attitude of the public is to understand that these bombing are retaliation for what the Germans have done to the Jews.  This argument comes back, when after a break, the heavy bombing is resumed in the summer of 1944. Stargardt refutes the mantra Wir haben es nicht gewuest (we did not know about it) with ample evidence.

The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945 looks in a manifold of aspects of German society, paying special attention to the position of women, ideological placed in the family and the kitchen but in fact a massive (voluntary) workforce and minorities, with of course a special focus on the Jews. But also the treatment and killing on the German disabled, psychiatric patients and socially deprived is breathtakingly described in the chapter Extreme Measures. In this horrible episode the German churches play a somewhat more human role, but in general is Stargardts’ judgement about their role during and directly after the war rather harsh: the Churches did not show the Christian compassion they should have stand for. Or even worse sometimes: several of their high placed members of the clergy gave full support to the Nazis.

A chilly red thread in the book is the role of Nazi brainwashing and the brilliant but disgusting manipulations of the Goebbles’ propaganda machine. It shows how important this instrument was in influencing the mind and hearts of the people in Germany. The radio and written press were pivotal for its success but also culture and art were addressed. Goebbles spend not less than 25% of his budget on culture and theater performances to make sure that critical citizens had an outlet for their possible controversial thoughts. However, even with all propaganda tools, not each programme was successful. The intended building of a national community, which was voluntary willing to sacrifice all for the fatherland, failed due to traditional localism and regionalism and massive inner migration. People kept complaining about their fate and kept accusing each other of misusing benefits.

Why should you not read this book?

The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945 is a big book of about 700 pages, giving a dramatic and worrisome picture of how a highly civilized nation, which in a relative short time disintegrated into chaos, violence and terror. It leaves you with little hope for humanity when it encounters exceptional circumstances. So many lack moral qualities. willing to realize the consequences of what they heard and perceived.

Why should you read this book?

The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945 shows history in its full complexity, with blur lines between perpetrators, bystanders and victims. A quote in the first weeks after the liberation written in the diary of Victor Klemperer, the German academic of Jewish origin, pictures this very well when he wrote Curious conflict within me: I rejoice in God’s vengeance on the Henchmen of the Third Reich  .. and yet I find it dreadful now to see the victors and avengers racing through the city which they have so hellishly wrecked (Dresden). With this and many other quotes from eyewitnesses we are able to have an in depth insight of dreams, expectations, feelings and behavior of many German civilians and soldiers. It leads to an adverse picture of a divided society, where many, but not all, were willing to fight until the very last moment and subsequently were unwilling to face the post war situation.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945 offers ample opportunities to discuss about the way we talk about the blame for crimes against humanity and war crimes. It might be worth to explore this issue with examples given by Stargardt. He proves how massive the German military in Central and Eastern Europe was involved in such crimes, and how many of them looked away, despite even anti-Nazi convictions. However he also shows the lethal impact of the aerial Allied bombing on cities, and its citizens and the violence used by the liberators of the Red Army. As the book gives a wide picture of many propaganda campaigns it also offers the opportunity of deeper thinking about the use and impact of (war) propaganda.

Author Nicholas Stargardt
Original title The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945
Original language English
Available in Already published or in preparation in Chinese, Czech, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Polish and Spanish.
Publication year 2015
No. of pages 700
Genre History

Veendammer Wind: at the crossroads of history, football, and music

Agustin De Julio Reviews

Veendammer Wind: A football opera, 28-30 June & 4-5 July 2019

The rise and fall of a club and the importance of community

Just outside the city centre of Veendam stands the Langeleegte stadium imposingly, six years after the official bankruptcy and closure of the SC Veendam. The 29th of June 2019, the Langeleegte opened its doors once again for a festive occasion, Veendammer Wind, an opera celebrating the rich history of the club, the tireless engagement of the local community, and their great achievements. Inextricably, it also tells the story of the decline of the Sportclub Veendam, pride of the east of Groningen.

It is impossible though, to reflect on the decline of the club, without considering the social reality of the Veenkoloniën, the area of the east of Groningen of which Veendam serves as unofficial capital. This region is also one of the poorest in the Netherlands. Historically, the Veenkoloniën were hit by adverse economic shocks they could never fully recover from. The decline of the peat industry, and the mechanisation of agriculture left great amounts of manual workers unemployed. Aided by globalisation, industrial production departed to areas with cheaper labour during the last century. The structural damage done to homes and historical buildings in the Veenkoloniën due to gas extraction is the latest in a long list of adverse circumstances for the area. Culturally, this region has seen a marked disconnection with the rich west of the country, and has had revolutionary tendencies well into the 20th century. It is in this context - that of the beleaguered community standing up for what is theirs - that the story of a family trying to save their local club unfolds. The attempts to revive the club through national campaigning and the recruitment of cultural ambassadors is lovingly told, with an emphasis on local stories, and interesting insights on the role of women in traditionally male dominated sports, culminating in an organised women’s team becoming more prominent than the men’s.

Despite some minor pitfalls, this opera reveals the spirit of the east of Groningen. One leaves the Langeleegte with a handful of lessons learnt. Firstly, the opera communicates well that in difficult times, community and solidarity matter. Hard times in this case show the potential for local, community solutions that can bring an entire region together. Secondly, it showcases that despite the many noxious examples of identity being used for divisive and exclusive narratives, it can also be a virtuous thing: young and old, Groningers and not, came together to celebrate a club that bound them to each other. The prominence of the Gronings dialect, both sung and spoken, is a clear indication of the intimate relationship between culture and sport. Stunning performances from the main cast, supporting actors and the Veenkoloniaal Symfonieorkest were worthy of this touching local story.

What does this performance mean for history, citizenship and heritage education?

The Football Makes History[1] project led by EUROCLIO and its partner organisations aims to tackle social exclusion and discrimination of any type via the use of football history. The rationale behind the project lies on the conviction that football, through its wide appeal, can bring people together and exact great positive societal change. Veendammer Wind shows the richness, breadth and potential of football as a source of inspiration to address these societal problems. Everywhere one looks, there are local histories that could teach valuable lessons, both in the classroom and on the pitch. It also showcases the virtues of multidisciplinarity, and encourages educators not to be afraid to innovate by mixing history with other topics, much like this performance mixes opera with football and history. The past is interwoven with everything around us, and performances like these further make the case for the use of engaging and moving local histories to teach citizenship values and raise awareness of shared heritage amongst Europe’s youth.

Original title Veendammer Wind
Original language Dutch and Gronings
Genre Opera

[1] Project implemented with the financial support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union as part of the initiative “Football History for Inclusion – Innovative collaborations of school education and youth through the prism of local football history for social inclusion and diversity”

Written by Agustín De Julio, EUROCLIO trainee

A Study into International Law Development that Reads as a Detective

Introduction

Lviv in Ukraine is one of the gems in Eastern Europe. I visited this town for the first time in 1997 and was immediately taken by its beauty, despite the often dilapidated status of many of its monuments. My colleagues introduced me into its complex history. The city has been part of many historical kingdoms, republics and empires: Poland, Austria-Hungary, Imperial Russia, West Ukrainian People's Republic, Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and finally, since 1991 of independent Ukraine. The name of the city changed several over times too: Lvov, Lemberg and Lviv. The city was before World War II one of the most important centers for Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish culture. Many monuments testify of this rich history. After the Second World War the situation for totally changed: the Jewish population was decimated due to the Shoah and the Polish citizens fled or were deported. Lviv (at that time called Lvov) had become a Ukrainian speaking Soviet City.

In East West Street, On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity, Philippe Sands, is able to combine the very serious topic of finding a legal concept for the atrocities committed by the Nazis with family stories, which all relate to the city of Lviv. A request for a lecture in Lviv triggered this publication, which addresses his Jewish family story and those of three key figures involved in the Nuremberg trials: Hans Frank, chief of the occupied "General Government" Polish territory, in that position responsible for the extermination of the Jewish population of Lviv. Hersch Lauterpacht, professor of international law and already an advocate of human rights in the 1920s and 1930s, who coined the term crimes against humanity. And finally Raphael Lemkin, a significant Polish prosecutor. He introduced the term genocide. The last two, both of Jewish decent, studied both at the law faculty of Lwów, the name of the city after the First World War. Both came from the same county around Lviv as Sands’s own maternal Buchholz family, where East West Street was the name of a street in Zolkiev, near Lviv, where both Sands grandfather as Lauterpacht had lived.

The Nuremberg war crimes trials were the beginning of the modern system of international justice. Many layers were involved in the trials, but the two academics from Lviv played a determining role. Lauterpacht had left Polish Lvov for Vienna in 1919 as it was impossible for him as a Jew to take the law exams in his hometown. He later travelled to England and did his PhD at the London School of Economics. His thesis laid out the basis his thinking that about international responsibilities for individuals against the power the state. A thinking that ultimately developed into the international law concept crimes against humanity, which was used during the Nuremberg trials. Hans Frank was during the Nuremberg Trials, found guilty, amongst others, based on this crime and has been afterwards executed. Raphael Lemkin stayed longer in Poland, working as a private layer and prosecutor in Warsaw. In 1939 he escaped Nazi occupied Poland and traveled through Lithuania to Sweden. In 1941 he went to the USA. During the Second World War he gathered a wide collection of Nazi documents as evidence for their planning of a total destruction of the (Jewish) people. Based on these documents he developed the international law concept of genocide, which was also, but more reluctantly, used during the Nuremberg trials.

In East West Street, On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity, Philippe Sands combines his search into the lives and their thinking about international law with a search into the lives and whereabouts of his own family, which always had been held in silence. It is amazing how his quest leads to very detailed results.

Why should you read this book? Philippe Sands’ East West Street, On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity combines big and small history, and makes the reading about the development of international law a page turner, also for those, who have no background in (international) law. The book uses a wide array of evidence and clever and creative research and almost reads as a detective, and to tell the stories of the different people in the book. It is intellectual and family history embedded in the biggest disaster of the Twentieth Century, the annihilation of the majority of Jewish citizens in Europe and the prosecution of its perpetrators afterwards.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

Philippe Sands’ East West Street, On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity makes the reader aware that current talks about international law and human rights are relative young fundamentals in our thinking about the relation between individuals and state law. It gives ample examples how the two concepts genocide and crimes against humanity were developed and the various lobby actions necessary to have them accepted in mainstream law. It supports readers’ thinking about the benefits and drawbacks for using these concepts, in society as well during. What are now considered the benchmarks of democracy, were not seen as such before World War II. Neither by the Nazis nor by countries with vast colonial territories. Really good materials to make students reflect upon.

In the book we are also made acquainted with Hans Frank’s son, Niklas, and with Horst, the son of Otto Von Wächter, governor of Galicia, the man who was personally in charge of the final solution in Lemberg, Lvov or Lviv. How to combine love for a father with the knowledge about his wrongdoings is a big question for both of them. The difference in their handling of their respective fathers past is an excellent model to make students think about the complexity of addressing a recent controversial and even brutal family past. This book is an absolute must read, and should figure on many Christmas wish lists of history educators

 

Title: East West Street, On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity
Author: Philippe Sands
Publication year: 2016
Original language: English
Language read: English
Translations: French (Retour a Lemberg), Spanish (Calle Este Oeste), Italian (Strade Verso Est) and Ukrainian (East West Street, Old Lion). From 2018 it will be out also in German (Ruckfahr Nach Lemberg), Polish, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish + about 10 more languages
No. of pages: 470
Genre: History

Big history reflected in City History, Haifa Before & After 1948 – Narratives of a Mixed City

The Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation commits itself to promoting reconciliation, tolerance and understanding in historically divided communities. It looks at unresolved historical claims, which can, when misunderstood or manipulated, create and reaffirm prejudice and hatred among populations, thus fuelling ethnic and nationalistic violence and conflict. It has brought together historians from various communities to research and write about conflicting narratives of the past.

Haifa Before & After 1948 - Narratives of a Mixed City edited by Mahmoud Yazbak and Yfaat Weiss is a good example of their work. 14 scholars and experts from Jewish as well as Arabic decent have looked through various articles at the history of Haifa before and after the 1948 from cultural, political and social angles. The war of 1948, which changed the demographic picture of the city, as it lost almost its total Arabic population, is not directly addressed, but in each individual article the impact of the dramatic events is visible. The publication shows how by researching the past through a micro lens of city history, the reader is made to understand how big history of modernisation, industrialisation, persecution, colonization and war influenced the lives of each individual citizens in Haifa. The books tells stories about the vast growth of the city in the early Twentieth Century, the life during the British Mandate period, the inter-ethnic competition in the oil and soap industries, the Arab-Jewish inter-communal relations and gender interactions in the Twenties and the Thirties.

The articles in Haifa Before & After 1948 are of various quality and a more rigorous editing would have certainly have supported a bit more consistent publication. The downside of writing such micro history is the absence of a bigger context.  These stories lack a comparative attitude, which inevitably leads to an emphasis on uniqueness, which had been probable less if it had been embedded in a bigger question. Despite these imperfections the book is very much worthwhile reading. One article stands absolutely out and addresses fully what the Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation stands for. “Eraser” and “Anti-Eraser” – Commemoration and Marginalization on the Main Street of the German Colony: The Haifa City Museum and Café Fattush written by Salman Natour and Avner Giladi gives a deep insight in the highly politicized memory policy related to the city’s historical narrative as presented in street (re)naming and by the Haifa City Museum. This museum is housed in the Community Building of the German Colony. The German Colony was the first of seven 19th century colonises of the Templars, a branch of the German Evangelical Church. The way the history of this community is interwoven into the narrative of the Museum is fascinating. The way Haifa’s history is presented, (mis)using and leaving out elements of its Arabic, Jewish and German history, is really mind boggling. This article should be compulsory for each student or colleague who is interested in the politics of memory.

Joke van der Leeuw-Roord

 

A Complex Story of an English Female Benefactor

Introduction

In the early years of EUROCLIO we organized two conferences in Glasgow together with Strathclyde University about competence based learning in history. The onsite learning programme brought the participants to New Lanark, the big factory complex owned by Robert Owen.  It was at that time not long ago that I left teaching myself, and I had still vivid memories about teaching about Owen and his social experimentations. I was thrilled to finally visit the spot where it all happened and had a real historical sensation (Huizinga) when I was allowed to hold in my hand the first edition of Owen’s biography with his signature. The beautiful natural location and the good preservation of New Lanark were constantly in my mind while reading David Sekers’ A Lady of Cotton: Hannah Greg, Mistress of Quarry Bank Mill. His description of the location of the Quarry Bank factory in the neighborhood of Manchester made me aware that it must have been a very similar situation to that of Owen’s New Lanark.

A Lady of Cotton: Hannah Greg, Mistress of Quarry Bank Mill is an interesting publication, which intertwines gender, religious and moral history all closely related to the vast industrial development of England, and particularly the expansion of Liverpool and Manchester. It tells the story of Hannah Greg, a well-educated and intelligent young woman of Dissenter background. She married Samuel Greg one of the first cotton industrialists. She bore him thirteen children, who almost all lived long lives.

The book gives insight in the opportunities Hannah had in the world of Dissenters to have a good education.  Among these Protestant Christians, who were separated from the Church of England, was a substantial group of the new factory owners in the Midlands. They build new churches and created intellectual societies, which were sometimes also open for women. Hannah’s parents gave her the opportunity to become well educated, however when she married she entered into a man's world. Her husband expected her to be a good and dutiful wife. Initially she had difficulties with this position but eventually she accepted her fate and used her knowledge and skills to make sure her many children received modern and high quality education. She and her husband had a pleasing relation, although it was hard for Hannah to accept that her husband owned a  property in the West Indies based on slavery.

As wife of a factory owner of growing importance she turned her attention to the well-being of the young people (from 6 years old!) who worked in her husband’s cotton mill. She worked to improve the education, health as well as the welfare of the pauper apprentices. She used her knowledge and experience to publish a great number of books and could therefore widely influence her community and many who came into contact with her.

Why should you not read this book?

David Sekers becomes regularly a bit repetitive. It might be that this is the result of the limited amount of resources he could use, but it is slightly irritating to read a few times the same information. A better editor would have saved him for such repetitions.

Why should you read this book?

A Lady of Cotton: Hannah Greg, Mistress of Quarry Bank Mill demonstrates flawlessly the discrepancy between high minded philosophy and religious conviction and the reality of everyday reality. The dissenters had lofty ideas about education and equality but if it came to the mills’ workforce they did not (fully) apply to the pauper apprentices. These very young children were necessary for the production, and there was little questioning if such young people should be working instead of going to school. They received education at Quarry Bank, which was indeed exceptional for that time, but it was to become good and well behaved workers. These young workers should not challenge or change their societal position. Hannah’s silence about her slave owning husband also shows how she lived with a double standard and how complex it was to match ideology and practice. The current debate on the role of the Bristol philanthropist and slave trader Edward Colston is another example of such double standard attitude.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

A Lady of Cotton: Hannah Greg, Mistress of Quarry Bank Mill allows educators to discuss political and religious tolerance, especially in times of war. The book gives insights into the political situation of the Dissenters around 1800. They were already before the Napoleonic Wars observed with suspicion by the leading political powers. However, when they openly showed understanding for the ideals of the French Revolution, the position of Dissenters became really difficult.

The book sheds light on the opportunities and limitations around the turn of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century for intelligent women like Hannah Greg. It shows that women had more opportunities in that time to become educated than normally is assumed, but as soon as they married their freedom was restricted.

David Sekers’ preface to the book contains a short but helpful introduction into the source problem he encountered, when he decided to write about Hannah Greg. He was lucky to be able to use the Greg family archive, but was well aware how one sided that might be. His text helps students to think about the relation of building a narrative, based on truthful facts and still not being able to write a true story. In a time where we are caught in a big debate about facts and opinions, it is good to remind us all that history in the end always will be able to partially disclose the full picture.

Book Review: Developing a culture of co-operation when teaching and learning history

Paolo Ceccoli Reviews

Book Review by Paolo Ceccoli

Title: Developing a culture of co-operation when teaching and learning history
Author: Council of Europe
Year of publication: 2017
Language: English
Pages: 313

 

All school systems are coping today with more or less divided societies. All the history teachers have to deal in their classes with social tensions and new cleavages. The more a classroom mirrors the society, the more teachers’ work is challenging. In this situation, teaching history can be detrimental to civil coexistence or can contribute to reinforcing cohesion and mutual understanding. In this article I review an e-book, published in English by the Council of Europe (CoE), in which didactics of history at its best shows how teaching could foster mutual cohesion and understanding. The book is the final result of a multi annual project in which Cypriot teachers belonging to both communities (Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot), guided and supervised by CoE experts, reflected and produced different materials responding to our time educational needs.

From 1974 onwards Cyprus has been divided in two parts. The northern one, Turkish Republic of Cyprus, recognised only by Turkey, and the Republic of Cyprus, recognised by the international community. After many years of division the complex background of the reconciliation process offered a lot of opportunity to think and practice a quality history teaching. Council of Europe and a local association (AHDR) cooperated in order to produce useful material for history teaching in a divided society. The Association for Historical Dialogue and Research (AHDR), founded in 2003, whose mission “contributes to the advancement of historical understanding amongst the public and more specifically amongst children, youth, and educators by providing access to learning opportunities for individuals of every ability and every ethnic, religious, cultural, and social background, based on the respect for diversity and the dialogue of ideas” , hosted the final presentation of this material the 10th and 11th of March 2017 in Nicosia.

The e-book Developing a culture of co-operation in teaching and learning history, available at a the moment only in English (http://www.coe.int/en/web/history-teaching/culture-of-cooperation), has been intended as a tool for initial and in-service teacher training, with the ambition to be used as a self-training tool as well. The content and teaching methodologies proposed, although inspired by the local situation, have a universal value and may also be of great interest all over the Europe and beyond. As stated in the presentation leaflet, this is a text composed of a "orientation document that exposes the concepts of culture and cooperation" followed by "seven distinct training units" that deal with the following topics:

1. Does differentiation have to mean different?
2. Develop empathy as an historical skill.
3. Gender and inclusivity.
4. Dealing with stereotypes.
5. Societies living together: understanding cultural diversity in teaching and learning history.
6. Using literature, art and film to aid historical understanding.
7. Information communications technology and history teaching.

The content of the e-book includes texts of various types: narratives, quotations, transcripts of interviews, tables, diagrams, photographs and other visual aids, question boxes, teaching units and work schemes. Worksheets and other materials associated with lessons are available on separate pages, so teachers can print and use them separately.
The main theoretical question raised by this book can summarized this way: teaching of history, the traditional way of conveying it as a series of incontrovertible facts that tends to establish a division between "us" and "them", has often been the cause of conflicts created by the ignorance of factors that, instead, nuances what it is necessary to understand multiperspectively. How can one overcome the destructive potential of a victimized or aggressive teaching of history?

An answer seems to consist in giving up political history teaching. Whatever you would substitute, the exclusion or reduction of political history is a double-cut axe. On the one hand, the impact of historical divisional factors could be reduced, in fact teaching the inevitable antagonism of any political-military affair tends to project to the past our own present preferences. In this way we could legitimize them "objectively", by means of one-sided historical interpretation, which can be detrimental to the civil coexistence of states and communities. But, on the other hand, renouncing irenically to confronting conflicts can make students particularly deprived of the conceptual knowledge and argumentative skills needed to defend themselves from manipulation and rhetoric, from simplifying ideologies and from discriminatory responses with no real understanding.

One of the main values of the text presented by the Council of Europe and the AHDR is precisely to call for a balanced, courageous and open-minded political history capable of dealing with controversial and sensitive issues with a critical and multi-perspective, dialectical and at the same time rigorous attitude. Teaching of political history this way can and must be done to overcome or, at least to examine critically "clash of civilizations" theory.

If it’s true that every clash is also a melting of cultures, this is also because culture is an element of cohesion and division, but no culture is a homogeneous set of "free from internal divisions" features in itself. The message in this book is to show how individuals and cultures have the right to express their "identity," and "enjoy their heritage," but it’s impossible to "create separate, hermetically sealed worlds.” For this purpose, history must be taught in such a way as to exclude the idea that they existed in the past, in the midst of conflicts and struggles, "identities and cultures that are permanently antagonistic and mutually exclusive."

Why should you not read this book?

If you are not a history teacher, if you do not care teaching controversial issues, you should not read or use this book. I do not see any other reason not to dig deeply into this book, because I think that it is really great for the purpose that has been made for.

Why should you read this book?

If you are an history teacher eager to deal with controversial and sensitive issues, if you want to train yourself and learn how to improve your history lessons in a particularly difficult field, if you are a young teachers looking for materials updating your knowledge and your student knowledge as well, you have to read, study and use it.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

I think that this book shows us how a well-done history teaching can contribute to bolster communities’ cohesion and to foster civil and social relationship, recognising openly the past without burying the head under the sand.

Punishment as driver for Colonialism, Tsarist Siberia

EUROCLIO Reviews ,

Years ago, during a short Dutch cycling holiday we came in the beautiful old town Zutphen. While walking the town, I found a real bookshop and upon entering the shopkeeper immediately came to me and asked me a little about my reading tastes. He walked away and came back with Sakhalin Island written by Chekhov and originally published in 1893. I liked his theater plays, knew he was a doctor but was fully unaware of this study into the circumstances of people living on this very remote Siberian Island.  The book was an eye-opener, Chekhov had carried out a modern research, asking questions among others about the treatment of the convicts, the food situation, the position of mothers and children. It gave deep insight into the mostly appalling lives of inhabitants of this part of Siberia, the convicted and settlers alike. Much earlier I had also enjoyed reading East of the Sun: The Epic Conquest and Tragic History of Siberia, written by Benson Bobrick (1992). This impressive book addressed the Russian colonial expansion and exploitation from the first conquests by Cossacks in the 16th century until the late 20th century.

No wonder that I was very interested a new, 2016, publication The House of the Dead, Siberian Exile Under the Tsars, written by the University of London Historian Daniel Beer. A magisterial book, bringing the reader right in the heart of the vast prison without roof, as Siberia was called. Deer was able to research in archives in Moscow, Petersburg, Tobolsk and Irkutsk and has been able to access a wide array of reports, letters and memoires. It pictures the period from 1803 till 1917, focusing on groups of predominantly political exiles, such as the Decembrists, the Polish resurrects of 1830 and 1861 and the growing group of opponents of the Russian Autocracy after 1870. But at the same time we are informed about the voyage to Siberia, the conditions of the prisoners and penal laborers and different approaches to corporal punishment. We learn about the position of women and children and the different ways the Siberian Authorities tried to cope with a system, which was always under resourced.

One of the central persons in the book is famous Russian Author Dostoyevsky, who after a mock execution in Petersburg in 1849 was exiled  10 years in Siberia. He was sent for four years to prison camp, which was followed by six years of compulsory military service. The title of Beers’ book is taken from semi-autobiographic Dostoyevskys’ Notes from The House of the Dead, written in 1860-62, after the author had returned to Petersburg.

The House of the Dead, Siberian Exile Under the Tsars gives ample evidence about the failure of the penal system, which scarcely had a legal basis. Many convicts were exiled often without any juridical procedures and the crimes they had committed gave regularly hardly justification for the harsh punishments they were given. The vast Siberian territory and the lack of guards, due to continuous under resourcing of the system, gave way to extreme violence and savagery, among guards as well as convicts. The fact that penal system was seen as a basis for Siberian colonialism made things worse. The convicts had neither any competencies nor specific qualities for the work they were ordered to carry out, and the results were disastrous. Many prisoners were also undernourished and sickly and had therefore very low productivity. Mine and factory owners were consequently unwilling to use the work of the convicts, and preferred free settlers.

Why should you not read this book?

The House of the Dead, Siberian Exile Under the Tsars is based on a wide collection of written sources, including personal letters, memoires and letters. Inevitably this means that the voice of the upper and middle class prisoners dominates. It is unfortunate that the reader, due this lack of evidence, cannot learn a bit more about these common convicts’ thinking and feelings. This group constituted the after all the overall majority of the penal convicts. The opinions expressed by the more elitist, and political, convicts about these common criminals, show the distance between these two groups of Siberian convicts. The views confirm the stereotypical image of savage people without human feelings.

Why should you read the book?

The House of the Dead, Siberian Exile Under the Tsars helps us to understand the circumstances behind the growing political and revolutionary unrest in Russia. Although from the 1870s’ there was growing resistance against the penal exile system and many reports showed its costly and negative impact, it seemed impossible for the Authorities in St Petersburg to abolish the system. On the contrary, as result of the violent political unrest in Russia in 1905, which was also endemic in Siberia, more political prisoners were transported to Siberia and the penal regime further tightened. This approach only increased the anger and revolutionary attitudes of the prisoners. After the Abdication of Nicolas II in spring 1917, one the first decisions of the Provisional Government was to release the prisoners in Siberia and abolish exile as a punishment. However the Bolshevik revolution and the civil war that followed revived the penal exile system, on an even more brutal scale. Even in Russia today this penal exile is still in place.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

The House of the Dead, Siberian Exile Under the Tsars is rich in primary sources, which help to come near to people, who experienced a hard life very different from how they had lived. It might be interesting to explore how it was possible that still many of these convicts were able to endure this total change and eventually were able to return to European Russia and their old lives. There are ample books published about the Gulag. The House of the Dead, is an indispensable book to create understanding of the fundamental value the Russian society contributed to this system of penal exile. The book is therefore important to develop an informed discussion among students about continuity and change of the Russian penal system before and after the Revolution.

THE HOUSE OF THE DEAD, SIBERIAN EXILE UNDER THE TSARS

 

Author Daniel Beer
Language read English
Translations Dutch (2016) Translations are forthcoming  in the next year or so in German, Italian, Portuguese, Polish and Chinese
No. of pages 490
Genre History

 

Two Very Different Jewish Family Histories: Oliviera and Schlesinger

EUROCLIO Reviews ,

When I was still living at my parents’ home our family doctor was Elsa Jesserum d’Oliviera. One of my best friends was her daughter Suzanne Rodrigues Pereira. I was also –very secretly- in love with her brother Rob. As we were also almost neighbours, I frequented their home regularly. I knew that they, as a Jewish family, had suffered during the war and that family members had been murdered. However, specific details were unknown to me, and I did not dare to ask more than what was voiced. In 2015 the Dutch historian Jaap Cohen wrote his PHD theses The inescapable descent of Eli d'Oliveira, a Portuguese Jewish family history (De onontkoombare afkomst van Eli d’Oliveira, Een Portugees-Joodse familiegeschiedenis). The main focus of the book is the life of Eli d'Oliveira, the grandfather of my friend Suzanne, but it also looks into the wider Jesserum d’Oliviera family, and indeed into the life and fate of her mother, our family doctor. It answered many of my unasked questions. However, above anything all, the book gave insights how Portuguese Jewish families preserved their identity in Dutch Society and by doing so distanced themselves from the Dutch Ashkenazi Jews. The book Their Promised Land. My grandparents in Love and War by Ian Burema, is about the German/English Jewish Schlesinger family. His grandparents Bernard and Winnifred wrote each other many (loving) letters, on which Burema was able to base his family history.  Although this book tells a very different story, also here the manner how the family handled their Jewish identity plays an important role.

Both books are good reads for understanding the predominantly 20th century history of integrated - or perhaps even more, assimilated - Jewish families, where religion was abandoned. They were respected members of the society, and did not apply divergent rites or habits. In the case of the Schlesinger family, the family members even did their utmost to be more British than the British.  However, the families were recognized as Jews by their societies, and certainly the Schlesinger family experienced (vague) anti-Semitism in their everyday life.

The Oliviera family was immediately understood as Jewish by the Nazis after their occupation of the Netherlands. Grandfather Eli Oliviera tried, together with many other Dutch Jews from Portuguese origin, to give evidence that they entered the Netherlands in the 17th Century as Christians and, that they therefore would not qualify as Jews but as members of the Mediterranean race. They also pointed out that their highly cultured community was superior to the culture of the Dutch Ashkenazi Jews. A long legal procedure followed and finally failed, resulting in the deportation and murdering of most members of the community, including grandfather Eli. Mother Elsa escaped this ultimate lot. She was deported to the Dutch concentration camp Westerbork but through an exceptional and almost incredible turn of fate, was able to return during Wartime to Amsterdam. She had fallen in love with Paul Rodrigues Pereira and before the end of the war they even had a baby boy. The couple was among the first couples marrying after the end of the War.

Why should you not read these books?

Cohen follows meticulously and at length the legal approaches explored by Eli Oliviera and other Portuguese Jews to avoid deportation. This is perhaps a little too much for an ordinary reader. But, on the other hand, it shows how, based on racial philosophy thinking of the Nazis, people tried to counter argue their approaches. I presume that few people are aware of this small chapter in the history of the Shoah. Burema has not written a deeply intellectual book. It focuses predominantly on the relationship of the couple writing letters, without going too much in depth into contextual information.

Why should you read these books?

Both books go beyond the Shoah and offer valuable insight in the variety of Jewish life before the Holocaust, showing Jews as actors instead of victims. Their Promised Land. My grandparents in Love and War is a pleasant book about migration, integration, assimilation and emancipation, but also about love between two people who were separated during both wars, when Bernard was doing his duty as medical Orderly. In The inescapable descent of Eli d'Oliveira, a Portuguese Jewish family history the history of the Oliviera family is told in a much longer perspective. It shows the different pathways of family members after they entered the Netherlands in the late 17th Century. We also are made aware that around 1940 the concept of race was still very much accepted in mainstream academic work and measuring race features was common practice in anthropology. Elsa Oliviera herself was involved in a survey measuring members of the Portuguese Jewish Community and Ashkenazi Jews, which lead to the conclusion that the first group could not be considered Jewish.

How can history, citizenship and heritage education benefit?

Both books give evidence of how little people knew, or were able to realize about the position and fate of the Jews. The administration in both countries closed the frontiers for Jewish refugees in the late thirties. When the UK government decided to allow 10.000 children to come to Britain, under the strict condition that their parents were not allowed to accompany them, the Schlesinger family took loving care of ten of those children.  But in their everyday letter conversations during the war, the fate of the Jews in occupied Europe was not a dominant topic. And even the Oliveira family avoided looking further that their goal to avoid deportation, what was beyond was probably unimaginable. The two books also help to develop an understanding for the complexity of identities. Both give evidence that before the Shoah holocaust there was also discrimination and sense of superiority among some Jewish people. The Schlesinger family offered help to German family members and the refugee children, but regularly have comments on their negative habits, which they describe as Jewish. In the case of Eli Oliviera, students may notice that he was even willing to use Nazi ways of thinking, discriminating against Ashkenazi Jews, to avoid deportation. A good teacher can in this case challenge their students to think how to make choices under impossible circumstances. Both books zoom in on the effect of big history events on personal lives, always a good thing for classroom teaching. And last but not least, both authors explain their readers how finding unexpected historical sources enabled them to write their books. Good for students to understand that serendipity often functions as base for historical writing.

THE INESCAPABLE DESCENT OF ELI D'OLIVEIRA, A PORTUGUESE JEWISH FAMILY HISTORY (2015)

 

Author Jaap Cohen
Original title De onontkoombare afkomst van Eli d’Oliveira, Een Portugees-Joodse familiegeschiedenis
Original language Dutch
Available in Dutch
Genre History

 

THEIR PROMISED LAND. MY GRANDPARENTS IN LOVE AND WAR (2016)

 

Author Ian Burema
Original title Their Promised Land. My grandparents in Love and War.
Original language English
Available in English, Dutch
Genre History