Football Makes History*: Understanding migration and the multicultural society through football

Julia Flegel Project Updates

The 3rd Short-term Joint Staff Training was held from the 01.11-03.11.2019 in Frankfurt, Germany hosted by the Eintracht Frankfurt Museum.

Under the overall goal of enhancing social cohesion and promoting diversity in the educators’ everyday work, 30 participants, school history educators and youth workers, were offered training, expertise and professional development, especially on the topics discrimination and migration in football together with 10 participants of the partner organisations EUROCLIO, FARE NETWORK and EINTRACHT FRANKFURT MUSEUM.

At first, participants learned about the German Football context via presentations by staff members of the Eintracht Frankfurt Museum, the DFB-Kulturstiftung (DFB-Cultural Foundation) and the head of “Koordinationsstelle für Fanprojekte” (Coordination office for fan projects). The second part of the meeting was dedicated to the development of the Learning Activities, the Toolkit and the Policy Recommendations, as well as story-telling in football – all key deliverables of the Football Makes History Project.

In two time slots, two parallel workshops on the Learning activities formed the core of the three-day training, in which four sample Learning Activities, formal and non-formal, were introduced to the participants, as well as tested out and evaluated by them.

Another highlight of the weekend was the opportunity to attend Eintracht Frankfurt’s 5-1 Bundesliga victory over Bayern Munich at a sold out stadium in Frankfurt. A big thanks to our colleagues at the Eintracht Frankfurt Museum for arranging tickets for everyone!

The case for teaching the history of the European Integration

Veronika Budaiová Association

The EUROCLIO thematic seminar on ‘Teaching European Integration” held at the House of European History on 22-24 November 2019 was opened by a keynote lecture from Liesbeth van de Grift*, Associate Professor History of International Relations at Utrecht University. She focused on the theme ‘The case for teaching the history of European integration’, and in particular on the guiding question:

  • Why is it important to teach the history of European integration?
  • What are potential challenges and obstacles when teaching the history of European integration?
  • What are possible ways forward?

During the interactive lecture, some teachers that were participating to the seminar underlined that they find it hard to include European Integration into the curricula, whereas some teachers said that they already teach about it. Liesbeth pointed out that one of the best ways to bring European Integration to the classroom is to show the impact of the European Union on our daily lives. Nowadays, every aspect of everyday life is subject to regulations, many of which were created by the EU to guarantee a common standard in all Member States.

For example, you wake up and brush your teeth with water that comes from pipes, and you know the water is not harmful to you because of EU regulations. Then, you might want to eat an apple, or a mandarin, and you can be reasonably sure that it was not subject to more pesticides than the limit set by the EU, and so on.

Furthermore, she continued, in all Member States people have a varying knowledge of the EU and its history. The role of teachers is especially important in this circumstances. It is only by learning about the history of European Integration, its relevance, and the functioning of the Union, that children will be able to form an opinion on their future.

 

The main question, thus, becomes “What do teachers perceive as important information to know about, when talking of the EU integration?”. This question has many different responses. The traditional one would be “high politics” (treaties, summits, or resolutions), focusing more on material interests than ideals. Other answers can be looking at the impact of the EU on everyday life, as Liesbeth explained in her introduction, or by showing successes and failures of the EU on the International Stage, as Helen Snelson suggested in another session of the teaching seminar.

 

The last part of the lecture was dedicated to the discussion of materials which participants are using in their classrooms or what they plan to use. Some participants said that they did not use particular material at the moment, but that they realized the importance of showing the influence of EU on everyday life. Some teachers, on the other hand, teach about EU integration when discussing the nature of democracy, while some others do simulations of elections to the European Parliament in their classrooms for the same purpose.

The main conclusion of the lecture was that teaching about European Integration is a multi-faceted, and not easy, task. There are a variety of approaches and instruments that can be used in doing so. Throughout the thematic seminar, participants got to know some of them.

 

Read more about the seminar in this article.

 

*Liesbeth van de Grift, Associate Professor History of International Relations at Utrecht University, specializes in the history of political representation in Europe. She leads a research project on the role of societal actors, such as consumer groups and environmental organisations, in the history of European integration. She is one of the authors of the textbook on European integration history The Unfinished History of European Integration (Amsterdam University Press, 2018) written for bachelor’s and master’s students.

 

Teaching European Integration. How and Why? – memories from an inspiring training

Veronika Budaiová Association

The thematic seminar on “Teaching European Integration. How and Why?” took place from 22 to 24 November 2019 at the House of European History in Brussels, Belgium. It was organised by EUROCLIO in collaboration with the House of European History with the aim of introducing new methods to teach about European Integration.

The programme was built around active workshops where new materials were introduced and participants had a chance to exchange their experiences.

The seminar started with words of welcome from EUROCLIO Executive Director Steven Stegers, from the Head of the House of European History Constanze Itzel, and the Head of the Learning and Outreach Department at the House of European History Ewa Goodman. Then, the programme continued with a keynote lecture by Liesbeth van de Grift making the case for teaching European Integration. The lecture focused on the strategies that participants to the seminar already use when it comes to Teaching European integration. Then, participants dived right into the first possible teaching method: a visit to the permanent exhibition of the House of European History, using the activity sheet for schools. This was followed by a walking tour of the European neighborhood.

The second day of the seminar consisted of a series of active workshops. Helen Snelson, member of the Historiana Teaching and Learning Team, hosted two workshops with materials taken from Historiana.eu. First, she introduced several strategies and activities of teaching EU history. In particular, she put the EU in its broader historical context, showing participants how to connect it to the bigger picture of the history of the European Continent from 1648 (Westphalian Peace) to today. In doing so, Helen introduced also a series of concepts that related to conflict management, and that students might find hard to approach. The activity she used is available at this link. Going further in detail, she tackled the question ‘What makes it possible for Europe to work together and operate as a global power and what are the criteria?’, where she presented examples of successful and unsuccessful cooperation between EU countries, in an effort of establishing what are the features of successful cooperation and global power.

Laurence Bragard introduced the different activities developed by the House of European History. She focused on an activity about the Elections of the European Parliament, in which students analyze the 1979 campaign for the first elections of the EP, comparing it with posters and social media campaign from 2019. This inspiring activity, in which students are gradually introduced to the concept of representative democracy within the EU, is available for free on the website of the House of European History.

Finally, participants had a sneak preview of the toolkit on “how can we best deal with migration?”, developed as part of the VPRO-led project “In Europe at School”. This toolkit makes use of clips from the TV series “In Europe Now” to teach about migration movements in Europe, and to promote critical thinking in students. At the end of the activities of the toolkit, students make their own mini-documentary on the topic of migration. The material was received well by all participants, who suggested new ways of using and improving the toolkit and expressed their interest in the results of the project.

The last day of training kicked off at European Parlamentarium, where participants tried Role-Play Game designed for high school students. There, they had a chance to become Members of the European Parliament and negotiate two (mock) directives. It was an interesting activity, which ask everyone to exit from their comfort zone and take part in debates, journalists’ interviews, lobby missions, and working group meetings.

Finally, Laurence moderated a workshop on identity, and on how people construct their identity. This is a rather sensitive concept, difficult for students of primary or secondary schools to grasp. The activity developed by the House of European History presents a series of step-by-step exercises that guide teachers and students in exploring their own identity(ies), how are identities constructed, and how are identities used to build narratives of inclusion/exclusion.

All in all, the seminar was a successful and inspiring training, where participants from all across Europe got to know about new instruments to teach about the European Integration, and shared their own experiences, challenges, and solutions to a problem, how to interest pupils in EU integration and high politics, that was shared by them all.

We would like to thank all the people that participated to the seminar, as well as the speakers: Laurence Bragard, Helen Snelson, Daniel Bernsen. A great thanks goes to the House of European History and all its staff for co-organizing the seminar and giving us the opportunity of visiting their inspiring permanent and temporary exhibitions.

How Can Pluralism Strengthen Peace?

Lorraine Besnier EUROCLIO

EUROCLIO is pleased to see that the award-winning "Learning History that is not yet History" team is receiving recognition for their work at the Paris Peace forum at the event:

How Can Pluralism Strengthen Peace?
Lessons from the 2019 Global Pluralism Award winners

The Global Center for Pluralism will discuss how history education and community-based reconciliation can help strengthen pluralism, sustain peace and prevent conflict in diverse societies.

Meredith Preston McGhie, the Secretary General of the Global Centre for Pluralism, will be joined by Bojona Dujkovic and Aung Kyaw Moe, the two winners of the 2019 Global Pluralism Award.

Bojona Dujkovic is part of the EUROCLIO's 'Learning History that is not yet History' team, that worked on answering the question: How to teach the history of recent wars that is often considered not to be history yet, but is remembered in so many different ways, and has been investigated in great detail in the context of transitional justice?

The team consisted mostly of teachers and their associations from former Yugoslavia. Several outcomes arose from that project, namely a an online database of existing educational resources dealing with the 1990s wars, a workshop, a research report and policy recommendations.

The event in Paris will discuss how many of the most intractable challenges we face today − from entrenched poverty to conflict-driven migration − stem from the exclusion and resentment of groups defined as “the other”.

Group-based grievances arising from inequality, exclusion and feelings of injustice increase the risk of instability and conflict. Pluralism is the choice to see diversity contribute to the common good. Making this choice is essential to building more secure, peaceful and resilient societies.

 

Kick off meeting for ‘Teaching European History in the 21st century’ project

The project

EUROCLIO is excited to announce the kick-off of our new project; Teaching European History in the 21st century. This three-year project aims to respond to the needs of European Universities that are increasingly international by providing innovative didactic methods, and the development of innovative teaching materials.

EUROCLIO’s contribution

EUROCLIO will be working on the development of an online collection that will be uploaded in Historiana. It will be consisted of selected primary sources in the original language and English translations, clustered around important themes in European history. Also, the primary sources mentioned and described in the textbook, which will be published in the end of the project, will be made available in the form of online source collections, in their original form and in English translation.

Project leader and project partners

The project has been undertaken by Utrecht University, which is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands since it was established in 1636. The Department of History and Art History is the largest department in the Faculty of Humanities and has a strong focus on international teaching and research cooperation. Furthermore, we have six project partners: The Autonomous University of Madrid (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid – UAM), which is a public university established in 1968, one of Spain’s most prominent higher education institutions. The Department of History at HU Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin), which is one of the largest and most diverse centers for historical studies and research in Germany.

University of Sheffield, whose outstanding record of research has been consistently recognized by external bodies and it has been ranked among the UK’s top three History departments for the impact and quality of research in the Research Excellence Framework 2014. Charles University (CUNI, Univerzita Karlova) in Prague, the oldest University in Central Europe, founded in 1348. Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), a Hungarian public research university based in Budapest, which was founded in 1635. Last but not least; The University of Lille (UDL), a multidisciplinary university of excellence at the heart of Northern Europe.

Outputs

At the end of the project, the following outputs will be published:

(1) An open access textbook that reflects the multiperspectivity of European history, covering transnational developments and networks in early modern, modern and contemporary history. The chapters are written collaboratively by international teams of authors from at least four of the participating academic partner institutions to ensure a truly European perspective.

(2) A collection of online lectures functioning as introduction to the chapters of the open access textbook.

(3) An online collection of selected primary sources.

(4) A best-practice guide to the use of the above-mentioned outputs in the international classroom. This digital volume will be based on the experiences of testing the outputs by international teacher teams in structured learning activities that form part of this project.

Kick-off meeting

Our first project meeting took place this week in Utrecht University, in Utrecht, The Netherlands. During this meeting we had interesting discussion and dialogues about the aims of the project and how to effectively reach our goals while ensuring we make the biggest possible impact. We are looking forward to the next steps! Learn more at: https://teh21.sites.uu.nl/

3rd Transnational Project Meeting for Opening Up Historiana

Fani Partsafyllidou Project Updates

The 3rd Transnational Project Meeting for Opening Up Historiana project took place in the Hague, the Netherlands, on September 12th-13th 2019. The partner organisations: EUROCLIO, Stockholmskällan, Museum of Slavonia, Institute for the study of totalitarian regimes, and Webtic met in order to discuss the development of the project and further develop the strategy to successfully bring the project to fruition. Ideas for new eLearning Tools were discussed, followed by two feedback sessions on them. Also the group contemplated on Partner pages, Source Collections, and eLearning Activities.

The tool that provides visual source with accompanying text on the side was seen in practice by all project partners. The teacher can annotate glossary or other information on selected text, or highlight parts of it in various colours. The student can make notes or answer questions regarding the text and then save his work or send it to the teacher. Finally, the teacher can access the student’s answer. Teachers’ feedback on this tool was that, while engaging, it is not easy to use as long as they cannot correct students’ answers on spot. Therefore, it is considered noteworthy possible development in the next stages of the project to support a Reviewing extension. Similarly, a future possibility to consider is the option to download text and annotations in PDF form.

This meeting will be followed up during the next Transnational Project Meeting, which will take place on January 22nd-24th 2020.

* Project implemented with the financial support of the CEF Telecom Programme of the Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA).

 

EUROCLIO’s project team “Learning History That Is Not Yet History” announced as winner of the 2019 Global Pluralism Award

Deborah Ahenkorah (Ghana), the Center for Social Integrity (Myanmar) and ‘Learning History That Is Not Yet History’ (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia) recognized as outstanding leaders promoting inclusion worldwide.

Ottawa, Canada – October 15, 2019 – On October 15th 2019, the Global Centre for Pluralism announced the three winners of the 2019 Global Pluralism Award: Deborah Ahenkorah – a young Ghanaian social entrepreneur and book publisher bringing African children’s stories to life; the Center for Social Integrity - an organization giving youth from conflict-affected regions in Myanmar the skills and voice to be leaders for change amidst the many overlapping conflicts ongoing in the country; and ‘Learning History that is not yet History’ - a network of history educators and specialists in the Balkans pioneering a new approach to teaching the controversial history of conflict.

The Global Pluralism Award celebrates achievement and excellence in the field of pluralism. The Award is presented once every two years to individuals, organizations, governments and businesses of any nationality. Through their remarkable and sustained achievements, awardees contribute to building more inclusive societies in which human diversity is protected.

The winning project, ‘Learning History that is not yet History’, was carried out by a team (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia) of historians and educators who have been working for over 16 years to develop a responsible way of teaching the history of conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Recognizing that teachers often feel ill-equipped to teach these sensitive and controversial topics, the network created an online database of free resources and provides training for teachers. They represent the only regional effort to provide a non-biased approach to learning and teaching about the recent wars.

EUROCLIO wishes to thank everyone involved in this project: the project team Aleksander Todosijević, Nataša Kostić, Emina Zivković, Bojana Dujković-Blagojević, Melisa Forić, Marija Naletilić, Dea Marić, Igor Jovanović, Miljenko Hajdarović, Miloš Vukanović, Igor Radulović, project experts Mire Mladenovski, Marko Šuica, Edin Veladzić, Saša Knežević, Snjezana Koren, Aleksandar Jakir and project managers Jonathan Even-Zohar and Judith Geerling.

Everyone in this project has showed true dedication to working towards an inclusive history teaching and we could not be prouder of  the work that has been produced.

Thank you again to everyone who made this project a success!

Report: Estonian History Teacher Association’s summer school

Lars Peter Visti Hansen EUROCLIO

The Estonian History Teacher Association's (EHTA) summer school took place from the 14th  to 16t of August 2019.  EUROCLIO Board Secretary Lars Peter Visti Hansen shares his experience there.

Earlier this year, from the 14th of August 2019 to the 16th I was invited to participate in the Estonian History Teacher Association’s (EHTA) summer school. The summer school is a major event in the series of events EHTA organize every year and it has taken place every year since the country (re-)gained its independence. It attracts a large number of EHTA members from all over Estonia and therefore provides a lucky foreigner like me with a chance of meeting teachers at all ages from all over the country.

Every year the summer school is organized in a different region and with a different theme. This year the focus was on the almost disappeared minority of Estonian Swedes who lived in the western part of the country up until the Second World War. At this time, many Estonian Swedish people whose families had lived in Estonia for many generations fled the country, many of them “returning” to neutral Sweden. This was a rough experience but not as harsh as the destiny that awaited those who chose to stay, who fell victim to the war.

Even though the Estonian Swedes are no longer present you can still find their houses, graveyards and churches, some of which have been restored in recent years. In Haapsalu, where the summer school was held, you will even find a cultural centre dedicated to the story and the traditions of the Estonian Swedes, keeping their history alive. There are a lot of histories you will only know if you either stumble upon them or someone makes an effort to tell you about them. For me, the history of the Estonian Swedes is one of those little known but none the less interesting histories that lets you see (Estonian) history in a new light.

Most of the conference was held at the beautiful newly renovated High School in Haapsalu, with excursions to nearby sites. I participated in the summer school along with other guests from Lithuania, Georgia, Russia, the Netherlands and Finland, who each made a contribution to the conference, for my part a presentation of a) the work of the Danish History Teachers´ Association and b) how history exams are organized in High Schools in Denmark.

The Summer School was very well organized and it was a great chance for me to be present and explore Estonia´s rich history. I would like to thank the Estonian History Teachers´ organization and especially the chairman Madis Somelaar for their professionalism and hospitality, which I hope I will be able to return in some way in the future.

Report: EUROCLIO Summer School in Osijek

Denis Detling EUROCLIO

EUROCLIO’s 2019 5th Regional Summer School: “Diversity and Violence” was held in Osijek, Croatia, August 22-24 2019. EUROCLIO Board Member Denis Detling reports: 

In august 2019, the regional cooperation of teachers continued with EUROCLIO Summer School in Osijek under the name: “Diversity and violence: rethinking approaches in history education”. Even though some of the participants were not history teachers, the focus was on new teaching methods in the light of the current reforms of the school systems in the region.

This summer school focused on the two great conflicts that happened in this region: World War II and the Croatian War of Independence (Homeland War). More attention was given to the teaching of the Croatian War of Independence, especially on topics which lack sources such as the process of reintegration of Eastern Slavonia, Baranya and Western Sirmium (to this date, the most successful UN peace mission (UNTAES) which lasted from 1996 to 1998).

Participants were given the opportunity to visit the Memorial complex “Batinska bitka” (Battle of Batina), which is mostly forgotten, and learned about new ways of teaching about it. In fact, the only people remembering this battle are either those whose ancestors died in this battle, or those attending local schools. On the second day, participants visited the Memorial Centre of Homeland War Vukovar. The narrative there related only military history, while the viewpoints of victims and the mentioning of the rebellion were overlooked. This presented a problem for the colleagues who are not familiar with the conflict. The next visits were The Memorial Cemetery of the Victims of Homeland War, the site of the mass grave at Ovčara and The Place of Memory – Vukovar Hospital. There the focus was on the victims, and remembering them with dignity regardless of their nationality.

An emotionally easier experience was visiting the Museum of Slavonia, the host of this summer school where the workshops and debates took place. There, the participants could see the Ancient Roman collection and the history of Tvrđa, Osijek and the nearby region. The tour ended with the current temporary exhibition “Omladinske radne akcije – dizajn ideologije. In addition, the works of the artists from Srebrenica 2018 were displayed (the exhibition was opened in July 2019). In short, there was no lack of resources.

The last day was especially interesting when the participants of UNTAES reintegration, Tihomir Živić and Kristina Babić, talked about the whole process (unfortunately, the other side of this peace mission was not present). Nikica Torbica along with some of his students joined, and the teachers were divided into groups to help write a lesson plan about these topics (everyone helped a lot).

The host of this event was represented by Nansen Dialogue Centre Osijek and with the historiographic project “Learning history that is not yet history” (LHH, devedesete.net). This project included colleagues from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. Judith Geerling presented EUROCLIO to the participants. This Summer School hosted members from twelve countries (Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia). Unfortunately our colleague Miloš Vukanović from Montenegro could not come. Participants visited several important historic sites; they listened to the different narratives, and got a more nuanced version of the facts. However, we are still a long way from reaching a fully multi-perspective approach. As Dea Marić mentioned, it will need the inclusion of more than just stories from conflicted sides in these events.

What happened in wartime, stays in the archive?

Jonathan Even-Zohar Association, EUROCLIO

New national pilot in The Netherlands explores the digitisation of the judicial archive of the post-war persecution of collaborators.

On Friday 13th September over 100 Dutch archivists, historians and other researchers gathered in Amsterdam at the Trippenhuis, seat of the Royal Academy of Science for a very interesting conference “Connect the Dots”. EUROCLIO asked me to attend as an Ambassador, in particular to see which relevance the content may have for education. Well, in short, not much. Not yet, at least. I did however take plenty of notes and am happy to share these with you if you have a further interest. In this report I’ll illustrate some of the fundamental issues which were presented and debated during a very interesting day.

What is it all about?

The TRIADO project essentially seeks to make one very specific archive more accessible. The Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging is the archive of the post-war legal instrument employed to persecute Dutch collaborators and war criminals who supported the Nazi occupation, volunteered in the Nazi war machine, ‘hunted’ the Jews and cracked down on the anti-occupation resistance. This archive of over 14 kilometers of jurisprudence and legal documentation is available at the National Archives, but only by researchers and historians who apply and obtain special approval to see them. In 2025 this legal restriction will expire.

  • Short series of interviews about the project can be viewed here (Dutch)
  • Detailed technical implementation report here (English)

Essentially, the TRIADO project, is a pilot to see what possibilities exist to digitise this special archive and make it more accessible. Big questions arise from this opportunity:

  • Should a digital archive which is that sensitive be available online?
  • What about privacy and information of individuals?
  • How can members of the public, if they are given more access, be supported in responsibly interpreting this archive?

Generally, the meeting was illustrative on a wide variety of challenges and opportunities of The Netherlands Dealing with the Past of collaboration and persecution in the process of the digitisation and the opening up of the special Tribunal archives.

What were some of the interesting issues?

A National 5-Year Documentary

To mark and document this process, the Dutch National Broascaster NOS has dedicated reporter Mr Lex Runderkamp, to follow the developments of this process between 2020 and 2025. As a war correspondent, most recently in Syria, he had always asked himself if he had done enough to raise awareness in the world on the importance of not looking away from crimes against humanity and genocide. A notion he illustrated with the post-war expression in the Netherlands “we did not know”. I found it quite special that the Dutch broadcaster has engaged in a project of five years to see where this will lead to. In particular in 2019-2020, we can see a lot of special attention given to the 75 years anniversary of the end of World War Two. This project puts a focus on war crime, strife and collaboration which is otherwise missing in the public eye.

Fear of the Data

Researchers during this day expressed a general excitement that this archive would be become searchable digitally on full-text level, and were somewhat taken by the presented prototypes which also stimulate them to ask new questions about the nature of collaboration in The Netherlands, for example about average age, types of families, environmental factors, and much more. But eminent sociologist Abram De Swaan expressed his concerns regarding the promise of Big Data in historical and sociological research. One example which he gave was that even if we would have all the wartime diaries digitised, the essential controversy about the big questions (did the citizens know of the Nazi regime horrors? Did they willingly participate, or could they have done more to resist, etc.), would have still been the same. He also pointed to various forms of bias in the sources which are obtained in the process of a trial, where actors act out of social desirability.

Privacy, Memory and History

The current archive is said to be the most consulted physical archive in the country. Ancestors are looking for very personal answers. Who betrayed my grandmother? What crimes was my uncle responsible for? Because of this, the archive carries large emotional loads. During the conference matters around anonymity came up a lot. At the same time a creeping desire to ‘get over it’ and ensure youth today are able to learn from this collection and part of history emerged. It seems to me that this archive tiptoes along the thin line that divides memory and history. Enabling full-text access to his, at the same time, including the opportunities for linked data, was recognised during the conversations as a big risk. One can only imagine a linked open data sort of ‘collaboration heat map’, or worse.

Digital humanities, Design and Diction

The project is coordinated by a network organisation called Netwerk Oorlogsbronnen, which in itself seeks to connect the worlds of research, heritage and technology. A particular presentation about the technical development of this pilot by the Director of the Royal Academy of Science Humanities cluster showed in great details the levels normally not considered by users of technological innovations. It was also very interesting to hear the important European and international infrastructures in digital humanities (such as Clariah, Clarin, Dariah, Cessda, Time Machine, Europeana, Dbpedia and more),on which such a pilot can flourish. It amazed me how much of our language in such projects has become tuned to technological design and development tongue, and can only hope researchers benefit from such projects and the cross-disciplinary learning it offers.

So?

Ultimately, this day took existing questions into a new arena. Researchers affirmed that critical source analysis is important, especially with such a sensitive and somewhat chaotic and technical archive as the War Tribunals one. The desire to provide better service to the "history-hungry” public is worth-while, but each steps should be considered very carefully. The issue of privacy kept coming back. The digital age and the long life of content online presents a special risk in the context of living memories of war which spark emotions of sadness and shame. I will seek to keep following this process over the coming years as well, and one particular issue remained open: what about education?

Jonathan Even Zohar-Zohar (Evenzo Consultancy) is the former Executive Director of EUROCLIO. He continues to represent EUROCLIO as an Ambassador. 

Photo credits: Zoeken door CABR-dossiers | Fotoalbum 'Centraal Archievendepot Justitie' | Archief Ministerie van Justitie