Shedding new Light on Known Historical Figures

Steven Segers Articles
Part 2 in a series on new Europeana source collections on Historiana
   Historiana new source collections  Historiana new source collections2  Historiana new source collections3
The featured source collections can be found on Historiana and therefore can be used to create online learning activities. This blog is part of a series of four releases of source collections. Stay tuned for more in the coming weeks!

A relatively small number of historical figures is dominating history. Historical figures appear in history textbooks, in movies, in documentaries, in literature, but also in the collections of archives, museums and libraries. Although there are many sources about these well-known historical figures in the collections of museums, archives and libraries, only a limited number of these are used in education. This leads to a narrow understanding of those figures who have helped to shape history as there is little room in the classroom to address the controversies and complexities that characterize history and good history education with a limited set of sources.

The dominance of a small number of sources related to some historical figures, is reinforced by the supremacy of a limited number of websites that appear most frequent as search results. If you can find a good source in almost no time, why choose another? The main challenge is probably the amount of time that it can take to find these sources. Language barriers and copyright restrictions can make finding sources more difficult. To overcome these barriers, EUROCLIO, in partnership with Europeana, has created sets of sources that put well-known historical figures in a new light. Europeana offers the unique opportunity to search the collections of various archives and museums. It can be difficult to search across these collections because institutes tend to use their own way of curation and categorization, but in the case of the historical figures, it is possible to find related sources, because almost all institutes have used the person name as search term. The results of this cooperation are now published at Historiana in the form of a new series of source collections.

A rationale for selecting historical figures
Any choice for historical figures will have its limitations. With limited time at our hands we could never do justice to the diverse range of historical figures that could also have been chosen. The purpose was also not to make a definitive and all-inclusive selection of historical figures, but to find out what can be gained from looking for sources about known historical figures in the collections of different archives. The people we chose to focus on – Julius CaesarJeanne d’ArcAdolf HitlerCharles DarwinJoseph Stalin and Queen Victoria – are all figures that most people in Europe will have heard about. They have been the topic of extensive debate and multiple interpretations.

How can these source collections be used to teach history?
The source collections offer the opportunity to see to what extent the associations that people have with these historical figures are resonating with the selected sources from the different memory institutes. The source collections can also be used to compare and contrast the sources that different memory institutes have and have not included in their collection about the same historical figures. In addition, because it is clear for each source where the source is coming from (e.g. which institute provided the source), the source collections can also be used to learn about the way memory institutes are building their collections. How do sources arrive in their collection? What criteria were used to select and describe sources? Students can be asked to select sources that challenge or change their ideas about the historical figure and to explain how these sources are challenging or changing their ideas. Alternatively, teachers can use the source collections to challenge the students to make connections between sources, explain the order or ask them to make suggestions for sources that could be added to the collections.

The Power of Images

Part 1 in a series on new Europeana source collections on Historiana

historiana_headerThe featured source collections can be found on Historiana and therefore can be used to create online learning activities. This blog is part of a series of four releases of source collections. Stay tuned for more in the coming weeks!

It is often said that young people today prefer visuals over texts in their education. The widespread digitization of images from the collections of museums, archives and libraries offer the chance to educators to meet this demand. For individual educators the offer, however, can be overwhelming, which is why EUROCLIO, in partnership with Europeana, has created sets of visual sources selected for use in history education.

In the context of history education, students should be able to make a judgment on the usability of sources in order to answer historical questions based on the origins, the purpose and their trustworthiness. A good way of learning about these concepts is by focusing on sources that have been created specifically to influence what people think.

On Historiana, EUROCLIO and Europeana have made accessible a set of seven featured source collections that allow students to compare different ways in which visuals were used to control or at least try to have an impact on the population. Students can learn about how visuals are being used by looking at different aspects of the visual sources: What aspects are emphasized? What aspects are left out? What does the maker of the source want us to believe?

What featured source collections are made?

Three source collections, World War One Postcards and World War One Photographs deal with the subject of the First World War. In these source collections, it is shown that sources that initially do not seem to have a nature of propaganda, are in fact created with the intention to influence public opinion. These sources consist of official photographs and postcards. Another collection related to the First World War is Kinderbuch; a more one-sided collection of sources from a children’s book glorifying enlistment in the army during the war. Two other source collections are clearly understood as propaganda: Posters from the DDR and Communist China show that it is not just the message of the poster that can influence people’s opinions, but also the painting style. Furthermore, a source collection about the Spanish Civil War illustrates different sides within one conflict. Finally, a source collection about Suffragettes tells the development of the suffragette movement and shows visuals meant to influence public opinion, both in favor and against universal suffrage.

How can these source collections be used to teach history?

The source collections are very useful to make students aware that a large amount of visuals has been made with a specific purpose. There are examples that are very obvious, while others are subtler and not immediately identified as propaganda. With this set of source collections, history teachers can help their students become more critical in real life when they find images, online or offline. The release of these source collection will allow teachers to help students create a habit of reflecting critically on visual sources, by discussing about the motives and purposes of the visuals, and to determine information that is left out of the image.

“Countries are stronger together than on their own.” – Obituary Edmund Wellenstein (1919-2016)

Ineke Veldhuis-Meester Articles

This obituary was written by Ineke Veldhuis-Meester, EUROCLIO Ambassador.

A European of the first hour, Edmund Wellenstein, a disciple of Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman, has passed away. This Dutch pioneer of the European integration was present in Luxembourg at the birth in 1952 of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the precursor of today’s European Union. As high official of the High Authority of the ECSC his first task was to prepare an agreement on a fair market for metal scrap.

Wellenstein “believed” in Europe—not so much as a utopia, but as a clever political move: as the best response to the post-war situation in the world. His time was that of the old six: Germany, France, Italy and the Benelux countries. They all could sit together around the table, and after three days of discussion the six could agree. Being an amiable and perceptive person himself, his adagio was and is that Europe should not be guided by fear but by leadership. In the early seventies he was the European Economic Community (EEC) negotiator, to guide the British into the European Community. When speaking of European-United Kingdom relations, Edmund Wellenstein immediately comes to mind.

He experienced Euroscepticism taking root in Europe, for example in Dutch politics in 2002 after the murder of Pim Fortuin, or in the British questioning their membership every now and then, as we are  now at the brink of a Brexit. He saw today’s European policy as an incomprehensible squandering of a “precious legacy”:

Like a bunch of spoiled boys we are going to treat Europe as a luxury problem, rather than as a necessity. We live it every day, every year. Where would we be without Europe?

In an interview some years ago he expressed his astonishment: “In two years a natural, wholesome and for the Netherlands as founding father prestigious dimension of our policies, the idea of ​​European integration, turned into that of a strange, uncontrollable power, which is after our individuality.” In his comments he reminds us Europeans of two conditions for keeping a firm hold on our destiny in a turbulent world: political craftsmanship, i.e. high professional skills of the political leaders, and—his main concern in his last years—political leaders who can bring this message to their populations.

For videos of Edmund Wellenstein’s interviews, please visit the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) archives.

Biography of Edmund Wellenstein

  • Born on 20 September 1919 in ‘s-Gravenhage (NL), died on 27 February 2016 in ‘s-Gravenhage
  • Nationality: Dutch
  • Field Secretary in the United States for the World Student Service Fund’ (1945 1946)
  • Official in the Queen’s Private Office (1947 1950)
  • Head of Germany’ Division and Director-General for European Affairs in the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1950 1952)
  • Secretary of the ‘Markets, agreements, transport’ working group at the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (1953 1956)
  • Secretary of the High Authority of the ECSC (1957 1960)
  • Secretary-General of the High Authority of the ECSC (1960 1967)
  • European Commission Director-General for Foreign Trade (1968 1970)
  • Head of the European Commission delegation for negotiations on enlargement of the European Communities (1970 1972)
  • European Commission Director-General for External Relations (1973 1976)
  • Co-President for Development at the Paris Conference on International Economic Cooperation (1976 1977)

Source: CVCE, Short biography of Edmund Wellenstein, http://www.cvce.eu/en/obj/short_biography_of_edmund_wellenstein-en-c4ed5c1f-d140-45c7-a512-0dce35f457d4.html.

War Surgeon: Arius van Tienhoven in Serbia 1912-1915

Jaco Stoop Articles
By Huibert Crijns, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands

Arius van Tienhoven only just graduated as a doctor at Leiden University, when in 1912 the Balkan War breaks out. Van Tienhoven doesn’t hesitate for a moment. He collects an amount of money, buys himself a medical equipment, and travels directly to Serbia. He offers his services to the Serbian authorities. He receives a warm welcome and is put to work in a military hospital. The whole medical staff there is formed by two students. The equipment consists of two tweezers, two scalpels and one razor. Almost immediately trains arrive with hundreds of wounded from the battle of Kumanovo. After a few weeks the Dutch Red Cross sends a medical team to support Van Tienhoven. Under his leadership they found their own hospital in a school building in Belgrade and provide medical service to wounded soldiers.

Photoalbums

Arius van Tienhoven (standing, second from left) is a well-known person in the Netherlands from 1912 on. In the 1920’s he sinks into oblivion as a result of his emigration to Venezuela, where he works for the Shell oil company. In Serbia however his memory is still kept alive. Van Tienhoven not only is an idealistic and adventurous doctor, he also is a gifted photographer. Using his pocket camera, something very modern in this time, he photographs all the events taking place. Later he glues the photos in albums and adds captions. He also publishes in several Dutch newspapers on his experiences. The photo albums in combination with the newspaper articles tell a fascinating story of dedication, sense of duty, adventure, suffering, war and love in early 20th century Serbia.

The photo albums of Van Tienhoven are discovered only recently. In 2015 they were donated by the grandchildren of Van Tienhoven, living in the US and Mexico, to the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. They were never published before and their existence was not known. The photo albums are presented now on the website of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek: www.kb.nl/tienhoven. The newspaper articles can be found on www.Delpher.nl.

First World War

Also during the Second Balkan War Van Tienhoven is present in Serbia. History repeats itself in 1914 when Austria declares war on Serbia, the beginning of the First World War. Van Tienhoven, who is in Berlin at that moment, telegraphs his regular assistant, Nurse De Groote. Already on the next day she boards the train to Berlin. Together they travel to Serbia, soon followed by other Dutch Red Cross staff. In the city of Valjevo they start a hospital in the local gymnasium.

Crimes

Van Tienhoven (in the middle with white arm band) participates in 1914 in what he calls himself the ‘horror committee’. Commissioned by the Serbian army, this committee investigates Austrian war crimes. As evidence Van Tienhoven makes pictures of dozens of raped, tortured and killed civilians. To the left of Van Tienhoven stands the captured Austrian major Josef Balzarick. He was accused of being responsible for the atrocities. Shortly after this picture was taken he commits suicide.

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800 wounded

On 2 September 1914 800 badly injured soldiers were brought to a nearby ammunition store. Van Tienhoven goes there to select the ones urgently in need of help: ‘What a tragic situation. This entangled mass of greatcoats, soaked in blood, on the straw like cattle. On the first floor, where three layers of shelves normally served to store ammunition, the wounded are now crowding on the bare wood. Wounded are everywhere, without bandages, paralyzed, blinded, intestines bulging out, the dying, the dead. It is terrible I cannot operate more than ten in one day.’

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Refugees

From the end of October 1915 ten thousands of Serbs start fleeing for the advancing Austrian army. Van Tienhoven takes pictures as a stream of refugees is passing Valjevo. He writes: ‘In the afternoon we see them coming, the poor procession of thousands and thousands, women and children, the sick, the disabled, by foot, exhausted, some saved belongings on the neck, in wagons with furniture. And they are starved, but there is no food for these endless masses. In a slow queue the refuges endlessly drag along the streets, sit down in despair, collapse never to stand up again.’

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On the run

Early November 1914 Valjevo is run over by the Austrian army. Van Tienhoven photographs the retreating Serbian troops. He hesitates himself. Do they have to fear the Austrians or will the Red Cross status protect them? Finally Van Tienhoven and his staff decide to leave. The roaring of the guns sounds close already. A freight wagon is hooked to the last train from Valjevo, in which they stow twenty cases with their medical equipment and find ample space to unfold their mattresses. The Dutch medical team is evacuated to Nish, were they work in another military hospital. After a few weeks the Austrian army is driven back again, after which they return to Valjevo.

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Sterilizer

The basic principles of hygiene are already common sense in the medical branch in 1914. The Dutch male nurse, Mr. Henken (with apron) next to the sterilizer which was used to disinfect the hospital linens. The hospital building is also disinfected regularly. Nevertheless in 1915 a typhus epidemic breaks out in Valjevo. Both Van Tienhoven and Mr. Henken are infected. Supported by the dedicated care of nurse De Groote Van Tienhoven recovers. Nurse Henken however will not survive the illness. With high fever he returns to The Netherlands and dies there.

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Delousing

To prevent contagious diseases new patients are washed, shaved and deloused. For typhus is spread by lice. It doesn’t help: in 1915 there is an explosion of typhus. Because of the many weakened, filthy and underfed soldiers and refugees in the town, the spread of the disease is unstoppable, resulting in thousands of death. ‘Forty doctors died in Valjevo in ten days’ time’ Van Tienhoven explains. He knew most of them quite well.

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Love

Second from right is Nurse Jacoba de Groote. Van Tienhoven (third from left) often writes about her: ‘Nurse De Groote, who witnessed three wars as a surgery assistant, never was one day in bed, never unwell, not even having a cold’. During the typhus epidemic she cares for him: ‘when the fever rose above 40 degrees Nurse De Groote wrapped me in the cold wet sheet’. If you read between the lines you understand it directly: Love is in the air. They marry in 1916 and have four children. Their children’s children now donated their photo albums to the National Library of the Netherlands.

Best of the Web in History: November and December 2015

Jaco Stoop Articles

This is the first post in our new “Best of the Web in History” series. The posts contain a roundup of interesting articles and useful tools to teach history in an online or digital setting.

Decision-Making Adventure: Undercover in Imperial Rome

ActiveHistory designed a decision-making simulation tool about the Roman Empire. “This simulation is designed to provide students with an engaging, enjoyable and rigorous introduction to Imperial Rome. As they journey around the virtual landscape, they will learn about the main personalities and chronology of the Empire through the “Emperors” worksheet, and learn about the main achievements and inventions of Rome through the “Roman Holiday” worksheet. Ideally, students should complete both worksheets, but they work as stand-alone resources and so are very flexible: for example, you may wish to set half of the class on one worksheet, and half on the other. Each worksheet comes with suggested extension tasks.” The ActiveHistory website includes many other online teaching tools, about all kinds of subjects and age ranges.

The Colosseum! What else left over from history education?

This article written by Alexander S. Khodnev addresses history education reform in Russia. “The reform of history education in Russia aimed at promoting the growth of interest in history, the formation of critical thinking, and the emergence of solid knowledge about the country’s history and world history. Much has already been achieved. Nevertheless, one cannot speak of sustainable notions of history for school children that could help to form a collective identity. In recent years, we can see a reverse process, back to archaic consciousness, based on distorted historical memory.” Continue reading here.

Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire

Scholars from various universities and institutions have created a Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire. More information about the project to digitize the Barrington Atlas can be found in this blog post. The aim “has been to create a static (non-layered) map of the ancient places in the Pleiades dataset with the capacity to serve as a background layer to online mapping applications of the Ancient World. Because it is based on ancient settlements and uses ancient placenames, our map presents a visualisation more tailored to archaeological and historical research, for which modern mapping interfaces, such as Google Maps, are hardly appropriate; it even includes non-settlement data such as the Roman roads network, some aqueducts and defence walls (limes, city walls). Thus, for example, the tiles can be used as a background layer to display the occurrence of find-spots, archaeological sites, etc., thereby creating new opportunities to put data of these kinds in their historical context. The ancient places and their names have been rendered on a topographical map created from elevation data, originally from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) project at NASA. The map itself is created as a tiled mapset in the Spherical Mercator projection (EPSG:3857), used by most webmapping services. It is compatible with Google and Bing street and satellite maps, OpenStreetMap, and can easilly be implemented with a javascript application programming interface (API), such as Google Maps and OpenLayers API. Work has taken two different forms: 1) preparation and improvement of the data; and 2) the rendering of the digital map.”

Chronas History

Chronas is a history project linking Wikipedia and Wikidata with a chronological and cartographical view. The result is a stunning visualization of historical events through maps. The project is designed by Dietmar Aumann, a German software developer who in his spare time developed Chronas History. The map can be accessed here.

This Will Revolutionize Education

“Many technologies have promised to revolutionize education, but so far none has. With that in mind, what could revolutionize education?” The video deals with the question of whether technology really has the potential to revolutionize our education.

What is history for?

Laura Sangha has written a blog post at “the many-headed monster” blog about doing history and thinking historically. “Last week, I delivered the introductory lecture for a second year undergraduate module, ‘Doing History’, and for various tedious reasons, I also recently spent some time reading, reflecting on and writing about why I consider history to be valuable. In the process, I conducted an entirely unscientific google trawl, trying to gauge what the general perception of the discipline was. I was struck by the fact that the popular or ‘commonsense’ perception of history encourages a rather limited assessment of its social and intellectual usefulness. What exactly do I mean?” Continue reading here.